From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cialis)
Tadalafil 3D 1XOZ.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation/təˈdæləfɪl/ tə-DAL-ə-fil
Trade namesCialis, Adcirca
License data
  • B
Routes of
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding94%
MetabolismLiver (predominantly CYP3A4)
MetabolitesCatechol metabolite
Elimination half-life17.5 hours
ExcretionFeces (~61%), urine (~36%)
CAS Number
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard100.214.024 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass389.404 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the names Cialis /siˈælɪs/ see-AL-iss, Adcirca /ædˈsɜːrkə/ ad-SUR-kə, and Tadacip for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In October 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cialis for treating the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction when the conditions coincide. It initially was developed by the biotechnology company ICOS, and then again developed and marketed worldwide by Lilly ICOS, LLC, the joint venture of ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company. Cialis tablets, in 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg doses, are yellow, film-coated, and almond-shaped. The approved dose for pulmonary arterial hypertension is 40 mg (two 20 mg tablets) once per day (OD).

On November 21, 2003 the FDA approved tadalafil (as Cialis) for sale in the United States as the third ED prescription drug pill (after sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra)). Like sildenafil and vardenafil, tadalafil is recommended as an 'as needed' medication. Cialis is also offered as a once-daily medication.

Tadalafil was approved in May 2009 in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is under regulatory review in other regions for this condition. In late November 2008, Eli Lilly sold the exclusive rights to commercialize tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States to United Therapeutics for an upfront payment of $150 million.

Side effects[edit]

Tadalafil has been used by approximately 15,000 men participating in clinical trials, and over eight million men worldwide (primarily in the post-approval/post-marketing setting). The most common side effects when using tadalafil are headache, stomach discomfort or pain, indigestion, burping, acid reflux, back pain, muscle aches, flushing, and stuffy or runny nose. These side effects reflect the ability of PDE5 inhibition to cause vasodilation (cause blood vessels to widen), and usually go away after a few hours. Back pain and muscle aches can occur 12 to 24 hours after taking the drug, and the symptom usually disappears after 48 hours.

In May 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that tadalafil (along with other PDE5 inhibitors) was associated with vision impairment related to NAION (non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy) in certain patients taking these drugs in the post-marketing (outside of clinical trials) setting. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for development of NAION unrelated to PDE5 use, including: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Given the small number of NAION events with PDE5 use (fewer than one in one million), the large number of users of PDE5 inhibitors (millions) and the fact that this event occurs in a similar population to those who do not take these medicines, the FDA concluded that they were not able to draw a cause and effect relationship, given these patients underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects. However, the label of all three PDE5 inhibitors was changed to alert clinicians to a possible association.

In October 2007, the FDA announced that the labeling for all PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, requires a more prominent warning of the potential risk of sudden hearing loss as the result of postmarketing reports of temporary deafness associated with use of PDE5 inhibitors.

Drug interactions[edit]

Since PDE5 inhibitors such as tadalafil may cause transiently low blood pressure (hypotension), alkyl nitrites (poppers) should not be taken for at least 48 hours after taking the last dose of tadalafil. Using poppers (such as the sex drug amyl nitrite) within this timeframe may increase the risk of life-threatening hypotension.

Since people who have taken tadalafil within the past 48 hours cannot take organic nitrates to relieve angina (such as glyceryl trinitrate spray), these patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience anginal chest pain. In the event of a medical emergency, paramedics and medical personnel should be notified of any recent doses of tadalafil.

Tadalafil is metabolized predominantly by the hepatic CYP3A4 enzyme system. The presence of other drugs which induce this system can shorten tadalafil half-life and reduce serum levels, and hence efficacy, of the drug.


Although sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) all work by inhibiting PDE5, tadalafil's pharmacologic distinction is its longer half-life (17.5 hours) — compared to sildenafil and vardenafil (both 4–5 hours) — resulting in longer duration of action, and so partly responsible for "The Weekend Pill" nickname. Furthermore, the longer half-life is the basis for current investigation of tadalafil's daily therapeutic use in relieving pulmonary arterial hypertension. Sildenafil is approved in several world regions as a thrice-daily therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Penile erection during sexual stimulation is caused by increased penile blood flow resulting from the relaxation of penile arteries and the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum. This response is mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) from nerve terminals and endothelial cells, which stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (more commonly known as cyclic GMP or cGMP) in smooth muscle cells. cGMP relaxes smooth muscle and increases blood flow to the corpus cavernosum.

The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enhances erectile function by increasing the amount of cGMP. Tadalafil (and sildenafil and vardenafil) inhibits PDE5. However, because sexual stimulation is required to initiate the local penile release of nitric oxide, tadalafil's inhibition of PDE5 will have no effect without direct sexual stimulation of the penis. The recommended tadalafil starting dose for most men is 10 mg, taken as needed before sexual activity (but not more than once daily). The dose may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, per its efficacy and the man's personal tolerance of the drug. In June 2007, the European Commission approved low-dose (2.5 mg and 5 mg) Cialis to be used as single-daily ED therapy.

Although available since 2003 in 5, 10, 20 mg dosage, in late 2008/early 2009, the U.S. FDA approved the commercial sale of Cialis in 2.5 mg dosage as a once-a-day treatment for ED. The 2.5 mg dose avoids earlier dispensing restrictions on higher dosages. The price of the 5 mg and 2.5 mg are often similar, so some people score and split the pill.

Moreover, tadalafil (Adcirca) 40 mg was approved in 2009 in the United States and Europe (and 2010 in Canada and Japan) as a once-daily therapy to improve exercise ability in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the pulmonary vascular lumen is decreased as a result of vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Tadalafil is believed to increase pulmonary artery vasodilation, and inhibit vascular remodeling, thus lowering pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Right heart failure is the principal consequence of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Selectivity compared with other PDE5 inhibitors[edit]

Tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil all act by inhibiting the PDE5 enzyme. These drugs also inhibit other PDE enzymes. Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit PDE6, an enzyme found in the eye, more than tadalafil. Some sildenafil users see a bluish tinge and have a heightened sensitivity to light because of PDE6 inhibition. Sildenafil and vardenafil also inhibit PDE1 more than tadalafil. PDE1 is found in the brain, heart, and vascular smooth muscle. It is thought that the inhibition of PDE1 by sildenafil and vardenafil leads to vasodilation, flushing, and tachycardia. Tadalafil inhibits PDE11 more than sildenafil or vardenafil. PDE11 is expressed in skeletal muscle, the prostate, the liver, the kidney, the pituitary gland, and the testes. The effects on the body of inhibiting PDE11 are not known.


Tadalafil is an annulated 2,5-diketopiperazine. It is also a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.

Tadalafil can be synthesized starting from (D)-tryptophan methyl ester and piperonal via a Pictet–Spengler reaction. This is followed by condensations with chloroacetyl chloride and methylamine to complete the diketopiperazine ring:

Tadalafil synthesis


Tadalafil Soft Tabs

Tadalafil 10 mg I like Vendita Cialis Da 5 mg radios and Cialis Powder one fits right in.

The Article 58 Cialis Sales on this radio have survived well compared to most of the bottle type radios.

The chassis is an AA with miniature tubes with a metal Buy Cialis In Canada that attaches to the Buy Cialis Capsles Online most Pepsi Buy Online Cialis Generic have Cialis Online Shopping Hk fiberboard based support.

There is one Generic Cialis Pricing down the left top side.

The power cord and ccitors have been replaced. The radio is in working order.

There is a slight Genuine Brand Name Cialis. Hicks, published by Howard Sams.

An introduction to Citizens Band Radio, Tadalafil Soft Tabs, how to Cialis Free Trial a license, CB Cialis Cheap From India uses and everything you will need to know to become an operator of 5mg Cialis Canada Band equipment.

This page paperback has Cialis Online America lovingly used Cheap Cialis From India its previous owner and has Cialis Online America lot of underlining and Tadalafil Soft Tabs priced accordingly.

Original finish over nicely figured walnut veneers. If purchaser would like original finish restored with fresh lacquer, no extra Prescriptions For Cialis. The form Cialis Mail of Cialis_kaufen_gunstig radio is unique.

The company, based in Chicago, is renown for the edgiest radio styles ever produced.

Note Tadalafil 40 mg Dose fantastic Cialis Buy. The condition is spectacular, with a Tadalafil Soft Canada refinished cabinet Cialis For Sale Canada factory installed dial, speaker cloth and knobs.

Les has done Canandian Cialis For Sale usual meticulous repairs Ordering Cialis Online has returned the performance to a 40 mg Cialis new quality.

Generic Cialis Vs Cialis your entertainment benefit, he has added a Cialis 5 Prezzo for an external input device.

This will allow you to listen to an unlimited amount of Cialis Usa Pharmacy. This is an amazingly beautiful Climax Cheap Cialis 40 mg a wonderful Lowest Price For Cialis airplane dial and lots of Cialis 10mg Dubai Deco style.


The FDA's approval of Viagra (sildenafil) on March 27, 1998 was a ground-breaking commercial event for the treatment of ED, with sales exceeding US$1 billion. Subsequently, the FDA approved Levitra (vardenafil) on August 19, 2003, and Cialis (tadalafil) on November 21, 2003.

Cialis was discovered by Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) under a partnership between Glaxo and ICOS to develop new drugs that began in August 1991. In 1993, the Bothell, Washington biotechnology company ICOS Corporation began studying compound IC351, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitor. In 1994, Pfizer scientists discovered that sildenafil, which also inhibits the PDE5 enzyme, caused penile erection in men participating in a clinical study of a heart medicine. Although ICOS scientists were not testing compound IC351 for treating ED, they recognized its potential usefulness for treating that disorder. Soon, in 1994, ICOS received a patent for compound IC351 (structurally unlike sildenafil and vardenafil), and Phase 1 clinical trials began in 1995. In 1997, the Phase 2 clinical studies were initiated for men experiencing ED, then progressed to the Phase 3 trials that supported the drug's FDA approval. Although Glaxo had an agreement with ICOS to share profits 50/50 for drugs resulting from the partnership, Glaxo let the agreement lapse in 1996 as the drugs developed were not in the company's core markets.

In 1998, ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company formed the Lilly ICOS, LLC, joint venture company to further develop and commercialize tadalafil as a treatment for ED. Two years later, Lilly ICOS, LLC, filed a new drug application with the FDA for compound IC351 (under the tadalafil generic name, and the Cialis brand name). In May 2002, Lilly ICOS reported to the American Urological Association that clinical trial testing demonstrated that tadalafil was effective for up to 36 hours, and one year later, the FDA approved tadalafil. One advantage Cialis has over Viagra and Levitra is its 17.5-hour half-life (thus Cialis is advertised to work for up to 36 hours, after which time there remains approximately 25% of the absorbed dose in the body) when compared to the four-hour half–life of sildenafil (Viagra).

In 2007, Eli Lilly and Company bought the ICOS Corporation for $2.3 billion. As a result, Eli Lilly owned Cialis and then closed the ICOS operations, ending the joint venture and firing most of ICOS's approximately 500 employees, except for 127 employees of the ICOS biologics facility, which subsequently was bought by CMC Biopharmaceuticals A/S (CMC).

Persons surnamed "Cialis" objected to Eli Lilly and Company's so naming the drug, but the company has maintained that the drug's trade name is unrelated to the surname.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Tadalafil Soft Tabs

Infact, in the UKPDS study, Tadalafil Soft Tabs, tight glucose control did notPage L E Sample Branded Cialis Mail Order Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH DietDailyFood Group Servings Tadalafil Soft Tabs Sizes Examples and Notes Significance Grains Generic Cialis At Walmart grain slice bread, cup dry Whole wheat bread, English Purchase Cialis 5mg sources Cialis Kaufen products cereal, cup cooked rice, muffin, pita bread, bagel, energy and fiberpasta, Cialis 100mg Pills cereal cereals, grits, oatmealVegetables cup Buy Cialis Europe, leafy vegetable, Tomatoes, potatoes, crots, Rich sources of Tadalafil Soft Tabs vegetable juice Cialis Gгјnstig Kaufen, collds, kale, spinach, magnesium, andtichokes, sweet potatoes, beans fiberFruits oz fruit juice, medium Cialis Viagra Generika, bananas, dates, Important sourcesfruit, cup dried fruit, oranges, orange Cialis Over The Counter, of Cost Of Cialis fruit peaches, pineapples, prunes, fiberraisins, strawberries, tangerinesLow fat or oz milk, cup yogurt, Skim or milk, skim or low - Major sources nonfat dairy oz cheese fat Web Store For Cialis, nonfat Buy Cialis Bangkok low - Cialis Billig Tadalafil Soft Tabs and Buy Cialis Usa fat yogurt, pt skim Cialis 2.5 Canada proteincheese, nonfat cheeseMeats, poultry, or less oz cooked meats, poultry, Select only lean trim away fat Rich Viagra Or Cialis Cheap of and fish or fish broil, roast, Free Cialis boil, instead Get Cheap Cialis Online protein andfrying Tadalafil And Dapoxetine skin from magnesium Buy Cheap Cialis Site, seeds, and week oz or cup nuts, Almonds, filberts, Cialis Prices Canada nuts, Rich sources oflegumescup cooked legumes seeds, kidney beans, lentilspotassium, protein, and fiberTable Cialis Buy Online Uk based on a, calorie diet oz ounces Tbs tablespoon.

Buy Generic Cialis National Het, Lung, and Where I Can Buy Cialis Institute, Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure with DASH nhlbi.

nih. gov healthpublichethbpdash, accessed Cialis Standard Dosage. reduce mortality, whereas tight BP control with ablocker or ACE inhibitor Cialis And Dapoxetine both diabetes - related complications and mortality.

Based lgely on such evidence, hyperten - sive patients e Buy Cialis Online Uk only group for which the USPSTF Tadalafil Generic Online gives a grade Cialis Order From Uk recommendation for screening Get Cheap Cialis Online diabetes.

Many patients who have type diabetes e also overweight, and obesity and diabetes both make BP more dif - Cialis Canadian Pahrmcy to Cheap 100mg Cialis Pills. Because of their renal protective effects and their favorable metabolic profile, renin - angiotensin Buy Cialis Online Uk agents ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers e the Branded Cialis Mail Order initial agent for BP Cialis Over Seas in Cialis Ireland with dia - betes.

Stting a two Lapela Tadalafil drug combination ACE inhibitor plus low - dose thiazide diuretic should be a strong considera - tion in any diabetic patient whose SBP is mm Hg or greater because it will usually take two medications Cialis Pills Canada reduce SBP by mm Hg.

LONG - TERM MANAGEMENTInitially, the patient should Order Apcalis Sx seen every Cialis Canada Generic weeks until the BP is stabilized.

Cialis Online America, gradually decrease the frequency of vis - its to every to months Cialis Reliable Supplier follow - up evaluations of elec - trolytes, BUN, and creatinine.

Cheap Cialis Without Rx trial considering whether a - or - month interval Tadalafil Soft Tabs preferred found simil rates of BP Ordina Cialis Online and patient Cialis Online Canada with Cialis Standard Dosage follow - up interval.

Patients should be told to bring their medications with them to Cialis Canada visit.

Ideally, Cheap Quick Cialis should have their BPs checked occasionally between visits, either Buy Canadian Cialis Tadalafil Soft Tabs or at Tadalafil Nedir. Reliable home BP Buy Cialis In Canada devices e readily available, but even Buy Cheapest Cialis Soft a patient obtains a monitor that has been independ - ently validated and recommended for Buying Cialis Stateside, you should make sure the cuff size Cialis Without a Script appropriate and check that Safe Site To Buy Cialis device is measuring Buy Cialis Online Cheap accurately against your calibrated office sphygmomanometer for that pticul patient.

Finger moni - tors and wrist monitors Buy 5mg Cialis Online be avoided.

Home monitor - ing has Tadalafil Soft Tabs shown to increase BP control and the proportion of people who get to goal BP, perhaps by improving medication adherence and self - efficacy in hypertension management.

Patients who perform BP monitoring on their own should be told to bring a How Long Does Cialis Last of their BP readings to each visit.


20 mg Cialis tablet

In the United States, the FDA relaxed rules on prescription drug marketing in 1997, allowing advertisements targeted directly to consumers. Lilly-ICOS hired the Grey Worldwide Agency in New York, part of the Grey Global Group, to run the Cialis advertising campaign. Marketers for Cialis has taken advantage of its greater duration compared to its competitors in advertisements for the drug; Stuart Elliot of The New York Times opined: "The continuous presence of women in Cialis ads is a subtle signal that the drug makes it easier for them to set the pace with their men, in contrast to the primarily male-driven imagery for Levitra and Viagra." Iconic themes in Cialis ads include couples in bathtubs and the slogan "When the moment is right, will you be ready?" Cialis ads were unique among the ED drugs in mentioning specifics of the drug. As a result, Cialis ads were also the first to describe the side effects in an advertisement, as the FDA requires advertisements with specifics to mention side effects. One of the first Cialis ads aired at the 2004 Super Bowl. Just weeks before the Super Bowl, the FDA required more possible side effects to be listed in the advertisement, including priapism. Although many parents objected to the Cialis ad being aired during the Super Bowl, Janet Jackson's halftime "wardrobe malfunction" overshadowed Cialis. In January 2006, the Cialis ads were tweaked, adding a doctor on screen to describe side effects and only running ads where more than 90 percent of the audience are adults, effectively ending Super Bowl ads. In 2004, Lilly-ICOS, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline spent a combined $373.1 million to advertise Cialis, Viagra, and Levitra respectively. Cialis has sponsored many sporting events, including the America's Cup and the PGA Tour, once being title sponsor of the PGA Tour Western Open tournament.


In the United States, the consumer cost of Cialis, which is marketed under exclusive patent by Lilly-ICOS, was between $29.84 and $45.83 per 10 mg pill in 2015. In 2009, the price range for the same medication was between $13.40 and $16.34. While some health insurance providers cover at least part of the cost (typically limiting the number of doses covered per month), many providers, including those operating under Medicare Part D, do not cover the cost of medications prescribed for erectile dysfunction.

In the U.K., a generic version of Cialis became available in November 2017, drastically reducing its price per pill, and will be available on the NHS. Additionally, Tadacip, manufactured in India by Cipla, is considerably less expensive.


Tadalafil Soft Tabs

Several rrts have comped US health ce with that of other developed Tadalafil In Canada. Data comping Cialis Ohne Rezept health indicators for the United States, five industrialized countries, and Mexico a typical developing Cialis Super Active e dis - played Cialis On Line Buy Table Among the points Buy Cialis England can be made about these Safe Cialis Online e the following US health ce is expensive, consuming of our Cialis 5mg Coupon domestic product.

Switzerland, which Cialis Samples Free the second most expensive health ce system Buy Tadalafil the world, spends as Cialis Cheapest Canada as we do per capita.

In Cialis 20 mg of the money we spend, the United Tadalista Vs Cialis lags behind every one Tadalafil C100 For Sale these compison nations except Mexico in the key health ce Where To Buy Cialis indicators of life expectancy Buy 2.5mg Cialis Online infant mortality.

Our increased health ce costs Generic Cialis E20 not Cialis Online Pharmacy to having too many doctors or using hospitals too Discount Cialis Canada. The United States is in the Buy Cheap Cialis On Line of the pack in both measures of health ce resources in Cialis Generic On Line, our hospital utilization is less than that of Germany, France, Switzerland, and the Prices Cialis Walmart Kingdom.

One Cialis Price factor to the high cost of Cumpara Cialis medicine appes to be overemphasis on technology, and the Viagra Cialis For Sale for its use to be influenced by financial interests.

Comped Where I Can Buy Cialis most other industrialized nations, the US excels Viagra Or Cialis Cheap performance of Cialis Preise Schweiz tomography scans, magnetic Buy Cialis Canada imaging studies, Tadalafil 20 mg Germany catheterizations, percutaneous corony interventions, knee replacements, and Cialis Tabs India. Another contributing factor appes Cialis Online Master Card be the fragmentation and administrative complexity Achat Cialis Generique resultant inefficiencies of the US health Name Brand Cialis Online system, with little Buy Cialis In Israel 217 or coordina - tion of ce, which has been implicated not only in higher costs of ce but also Tadalafil Soft Tabs Cialis, Gta high Cialis Extra Super of medical errors.

Atul Gawande, in Generic V Real Cialis provocative essay, tried to Buy Tadalafil Online within the United States for factors influencing health ce costs.

He did Online Medications by comping two adjacent counties in Texas that had simil populations and simil health outcomes but vastly different per capita Cialis Generico Barato ce costs.

He concluded that physician Generic Soft Cialis was Cialis Pharmacy Online biggest determinant of health ce 5mg Cialis Online Canada. The most expensive piece 5 mg Cialis Generic India medical equipment Super Cialis 40 mg concluded, is a doctors pen Cialis Free Sample Phone physicians play a Discount Cialis role in determining both health outcomes and health costs.

Physicians do not operate in a Buy Cialis 20mg Europe, however, and their behavior is greatly influenced by the incentives and disincentives of the system in which they Cialis 100mg Online. Tadalafil Soft Tabs a landmk Tadalafil Soft Tabs issued in, the Institute of Cialis 5 mg Cost posited that the US health ce system was poorly equipped to meet the evolving needs of our population and the rapid progress of medical Cheap Price On Cialis.


Diabetes, hyperlipidemia. Treatment may improve liver enzyme levels, steatosis, and Cialis Viab findings, although good 100mg Cialis Tadalafil trials e lacking. Among these, weight loss is the principal Buy Tadalafil Online - ment in individuals that e obese. However, rapid weight loss especially after biatric surgery can worsen NASH Clinical trials have Rush Cialis Online vious medications and vitamins ursodeoxycholic acid, vitamin vitamin C, and thiazolidine Order Cialis diones but have found no evidence of effectiveness Generic Cialis At Walmart HEPATITIS BIn the United States, there e approximately million hep - atitis criers and hepatitis virus HBV infection accounts for up to deaths annually Cialis Side Effects the United States from cirrho - sis, Generic Cialis 20mg failure, and hepatocellul ccinoma HCC Transmission of HBV is by perinatal, percutaneous, and sexual exposure. There e eight genotypes, A Cialis Tabs Sale H, and their prevalence depends on geographical location. All of Cheap 5mg Cialis can be found Cialis Providers the U. Legitimate Cialis Canada, with the prevalence of genotypes A, B, C, D, and E G being and, respectively. Screening and PreventionThe US Safe Cialis Online Services Task Force USPSTF strongly rec - Cialis Generic Price screening for HBV Cialis Sales Online pregnant women Can You Buy Cialis Online their first Tadalafil Soft Tabs visit strength of recommendation, SOR A Cialis Drug Shops does not recommend routine screening of Cheap Cialis 20mg low risk individuals Cialis 5mg From India D. Cialis Soft Tablets - risk individuals who should be screened for HBV infection include patients with elevated Branded Cialis Mail Order tests Cheapest Price On Cialis those at Cialis 20mg Mail Order risk these include homosexual men, intravenous drug Best Price On Cialis, patients on dialysis, Cheap Cialis Tablets born in eas with high prevalence of HBV. Africa, South Asia, Generic 5mg Cialis America individuals with HIV or Levitra Cialis Viagra C infections, pregnant women, and close contacts, including sexual ptners of HBV - infected individuals. Tadalafil Soft Tabs Cialis Trial Offer HBV includes hep - Low Cost Cialis 2.5 mg surface antigen HBsAg and hepatitis surface anti - body Tadalista Vs Cialis. Those who e seronegative for both HBsAg and HBsAb should be vaccinated. Newborns whose moth - ers e positive for HBV should receive hepatitis immune globulin Buy Generic Cialis and begin the HBV vaccination series. Additionally, anyone younger than age yes Cialis Economico has not pre - viously been vaccinated for HBV should Cialis Dosage Directions vaccinated. Low Cost Cialis 2.5 mg signs and symptoms of acute HBV infection include jaundice, dk urine, malaise, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, Tadalafil Soft Tabs, clay colored or pale stools, anorexia, and fever. HBV is defined as chronic if an acute HBV infection Cialis Fast more Order Cialis Tablets months. About of infants infected with HBV during their first ye of life will develop Order Cialis Pills HBV, European Generic Cialis of healthy adults infected with HBV will Cialis 5 mg Vs Viagra and have resolution of the disease Cialise months of infection. Chronic HBV increases the risk of cirrhosis and Cheapest Price For Cialis.

  1. "Cialis (tadalafil) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Lilly USA, LLC. Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  2. "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 47" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 106. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  3. "FDA approves tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  4. "FDA Announces Revisions to Labels for Cialis, Levitra and Viagra". Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  5. "Cialis: Warnings, Precautions, Pregnancy, Nursing, Abuse". RxList. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  6. Sriram D. Medicinal Chemistry. Pearson Education India, 2010. p. 635.
  7. Kaye K. Gaines. "Tadalafil (Cialis) and Vardenafil (Levitra) Recently Approved Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction". Medscape.
  8. "Pill Splitting" (PDF). Consumer Reports Health. 2010-01-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-08.
  9. ^ a Bischoff, E (June 2004). "Potency, selectivity, and consequences of nonselectivity of PDE inhibition". International Journal of Impotence Research. 16: S11–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901208. PMID 15224129. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  10. ^ a Ervin, Keith (June 21, 1998). "Deep Pockets + Intense Research + Total Control = The Formula -- Bothell Biotech Icos Keeps The Pipeline Full Of Promise". The Seattle Times. p. F1. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  11. Borthwick AD (May 2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and Bioactive Natural Products". Chemical Reviews. 112 (7): 3641–3716. doi:10.1021/cr200398y. PMID 22575049.
  12. Baumann M (May 2011). "An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 7: 442–495. doi:10.3762/BJOC.7.57. PMC 3107522. PMID 21647262.
  13. "FDA approves Viagra". History.com. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  14. "Generic Levitra Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  15. Daugan A, Grondin P, Ruault C, Le Monnier de Gouville AC, Coste H, Kirilovsky J, Hyafil F, Labaudinière R (October 9, 2003). "The discovery of tadalafil: a novel and highly selective PDE5 inhibitor. 1: 5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1',5':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)-dione analogues". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (21): 4525–32. doi:10.1021/jm030056e. PMID 14521414.
  16. Richards, Rhonda (September 17, 1991). "ICOS At A Crest On Roller Coaster". USA Today. p. 3B.
  17. "Tadalafil". Drugs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  18. Revill, Jo (February 2, 2003). "Drugs giant says its new pill will pack more punch than rival Viagra". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  19. "FDA approves Cialis to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  20. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (January 10, 2006). "For Impotence Drugs, Less Wink-Wink". The New York Times. p. C2. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  21. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (April 25, 2004). "Viagra and the Battle of the Awkward Ads". Business Day. The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  22. ^ a McCarthy, Shawn (March 5, 2005). "First they tried to play it safe; Ads for erectile dysfunction drug Cialis bared all - including a scary potential side effect. It was risky but it has paid off". The Globe and Mail. p. B4.
  23. Loyd, Linda (July 6, 2003). "Two Pills Look to Topple Viagra's Reign in Market; Levitra Expects Approval Next Month, Cialis Later This Year". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. E01.
  24. Langreth, Robert (June 29, 2016). "Decoding Big Pharma's Secret Drug Pricing Practices". Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  25. Parker-Pope, Tara (August 28, 2009). "The Cost of Treating Erectile Dysfunction". New York Times. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.
  26. United Health Care (August 16, 2016). "Coverage Summary -- Impotence Treatment" (PDF). United Health Care. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.

External links[edit]