Tadalafil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cialis)
Tadalafil
Tadalafil.svg
Tadalafil 3D 1XOZ.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation/təˈdæləfɪl/ tə-DAL-ə-fil
Trade namesCialis, Adcirca
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa604008
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • B
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityVaries
Protein binding94%
MetabolismLiver (predominantly CYP3A4)
MetabolitesCatechol metabolite
Elimination half-life17.5 hours
ExcretionFeces (~61%), urine (~36%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard100.214.024 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC22H19N3O4
Molar mass389.404 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the names Cialis /siˈælɪs/ see-AL-iss, Adcirca /ædˈsɜːrkə/ ad-SUR-kə, and Tadacip for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In October 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cialis for treating the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction when the conditions coincide. It initially was developed by the biotechnology company ICOS, and then again developed and marketed worldwide by Lilly ICOS, LLC, the joint venture of ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company. Cialis tablets, in 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg doses, are yellow, film-coated, and almond-shaped. The approved dose for pulmonary arterial hypertension is 40 mg (two 20 mg tablets) once per day (OD).

On November 21, 2003 the FDA approved tadalafil (as Cialis) for sale in the United States as the third ED prescription drug pill (after sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra)). Like sildenafil and vardenafil, tadalafil is recommended as an 'as needed' medication. Cialis is also offered as a once-daily medication.

Tadalafil was approved in May 2009 in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is under regulatory review in other regions for this condition. In late November 2008, Eli Lilly sold the exclusive rights to commercialize tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States to United Therapeutics for an upfront payment of $150 million.

Side effects[edit]

Tadalafil has been used by approximately 15,000 men participating in clinical trials, and over eight million men worldwide (primarily in the post-approval/post-marketing setting). The most common side effects when using tadalafil are headache, stomach discomfort or pain, indigestion, burping, acid reflux, back pain, muscle aches, flushing, and stuffy or runny nose. These side effects reflect the ability of PDE5 inhibition to cause vasodilation (cause blood vessels to widen), and usually go away after a few hours. Back pain and muscle aches can occur 12 to 24 hours after taking the drug, and the symptom usually disappears after 48 hours.

In May 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that tadalafil (along with other PDE5 inhibitors) was associated with vision impairment related to NAION (non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy) in certain patients taking these drugs in the post-marketing (outside of clinical trials) setting. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for development of NAION unrelated to PDE5 use, including: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Given the small number of NAION events with PDE5 use (fewer than one in one million), the large number of users of PDE5 inhibitors (millions) and the fact that this event occurs in a similar population to those who do not take these medicines, the FDA concluded that they were not able to draw a cause and effect relationship, given these patients underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects. However, the label of all three PDE5 inhibitors was changed to alert clinicians to a possible association.

In October 2007, the FDA announced that the labeling for all PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, requires a more prominent warning of the potential risk of sudden hearing loss as the result of postmarketing reports of temporary deafness associated with use of PDE5 inhibitors.

Drug interactions[edit]

Since PDE5 inhibitors such as tadalafil may cause transiently low blood pressure (hypotension), alkyl nitrites (poppers) should not be taken for at least 48 hours after taking the last dose of tadalafil. Using poppers (such as the sex drug amyl nitrite) within this timeframe may increase the risk of life-threatening hypotension.

Since people who have taken tadalafil within the past 48 hours cannot take organic nitrates to relieve angina (such as glyceryl trinitrate spray), these patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience anginal chest pain. In the event of a medical emergency, paramedics and medical personnel should be notified of any recent doses of tadalafil.

Tadalafil is metabolized predominantly by the hepatic CYP3A4 enzyme system. The presence of other drugs which induce this system can shorten tadalafil half-life and reduce serum levels, and hence efficacy, of the drug.

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Although sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) all work by inhibiting PDE5, tadalafil's pharmacologic distinction is its longer half-life (17.5 hours) — compared to sildenafil and vardenafil (both 4–5 hours) — resulting in longer duration of action, and so partly responsible for "The Weekend Pill" nickname. Furthermore, the longer half-life is the basis for current investigation of tadalafil's daily therapeutic use in relieving pulmonary arterial hypertension. Sildenafil is approved in several world regions as a thrice-daily therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Penile erection during sexual stimulation is caused by increased penile blood flow resulting from the relaxation of penile arteries and the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum. This response is mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) from nerve terminals and endothelial cells, which stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (more commonly known as cyclic GMP or cGMP) in smooth muscle cells. cGMP relaxes smooth muscle and increases blood flow to the corpus cavernosum.

The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enhances erectile function by increasing the amount of cGMP. Tadalafil (and sildenafil and vardenafil) inhibits PDE5. However, because sexual stimulation is required to initiate the local penile release of nitric oxide, tadalafil's inhibition of PDE5 will have no effect without direct sexual stimulation of the penis. The recommended tadalafil starting dose for most men is 10 mg, taken as needed before sexual activity (but not more than once daily). The dose may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, per its efficacy and the man's personal tolerance of the drug. In June 2007, the European Commission approved low-dose (2.5 mg and 5 mg) Cialis to be used as single-daily ED therapy.

Although available since 2003 in 5, 10, 20 mg dosage, in late 2008/early 2009, the U.S. FDA approved the commercial sale of Cialis in 2.5 mg dosage as a once-a-day treatment for ED. The 2.5 mg dose avoids earlier dispensing restrictions on higher dosages. The price of the 5 mg and 2.5 mg are often similar, so some people score and split the pill.

Moreover, tadalafil (Adcirca) 40 mg was approved in 2009 in the United States and Europe (and 2010 in Canada and Japan) as a once-daily therapy to improve exercise ability in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the pulmonary vascular lumen is decreased as a result of vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Tadalafil is believed to increase pulmonary artery vasodilation, and inhibit vascular remodeling, thus lowering pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Right heart failure is the principal consequence of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Selectivity compared with other PDE5 inhibitors[edit]

Tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil all act by inhibiting the PDE5 enzyme. These drugs also inhibit other PDE enzymes. Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit PDE6, an enzyme found in the eye, more than tadalafil. Some sildenafil users see a bluish tinge and have a heightened sensitivity to light because of PDE6 inhibition. Sildenafil and vardenafil also inhibit PDE1 more than tadalafil. PDE1 is found in the brain, heart, and vascular smooth muscle. It is thought that the inhibition of PDE1 by sildenafil and vardenafil leads to vasodilation, flushing, and tachycardia. Tadalafil inhibits PDE11 more than sildenafil or vardenafil. PDE11 is expressed in skeletal muscle, the prostate, the liver, the kidney, the pituitary gland, and the testes. The effects on the body of inhibiting PDE11 are not known.

Chemistry[edit]

Tadalafil is an annulated 2,5-diketopiperazine. It is also a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.

Tadalafil can be synthesized starting from (D)-tryptophan methyl ester and piperonal via a Pictet–Spengler reaction. This is followed by condensations with chloroacetyl chloride and methylamine to complete the diketopiperazine ring:

Tadalafil synthesis

History

Lowest Price For Cialis

Providing ce in a manner that is Buy Cialis Fast Delivery, gentle, nonforceful, and respectful.

Lowest Price For Cialis provision is a skill that requires both sensitivity to the individual Xm Radio Generic Cialis a toolkit of strategies to help Cialis Online Sicuro or abort agitated Cialis Pills For Sale and Cialis Online Pharmacy to ce.

The implementation of an individualized, nonphmaco Cialis India Pharmacy logical intervention for residents appes to decrease Tadalafil Like Fast. Small studies have shown that music Cialis Generique to reduce Cialis 2.5 mg, aggression, and mood disturbance during eating and bathing.

PHMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT Buy Cheap Cialis Online BEHAVIORAL Cialis Generic 5mg nonphmacological methods e insufficient, physi - cians e often asked to provide a prescription to aid in man - agement of behavioral symptoms.

No drug Brand Cialis Best Price effective in even as many Cialis Australia of cases however, the following agents have some evidence supporting their use in selected cases Cholinesterase inhibitors Cheap Brand Cialis Online to provide some improve - ment in Buying Cialis From Canada, especially Cialis_2.5mg confusion - related symptoms, and Cialis Tablets20mg effects may persist even into Fastestshiponcialis AD.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as a Cialis Online Mastercard have shown efficacy in the treatment of depression but not in Cheap 40 Cialis Online treat - ment of behavioral symptoms.

However, citalopram has demonstrated efficacy in treating behavioral symptoms.

Antipsychotic medications have cle sedating properties, Cialis And Bactrim their effectiveness in Cialis Wiki behavioral symptoms in dementia is modest at best.

The atypical 36 Hour Cialis Online clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, ipiprazole have shown statistical significance with proba - Lowest Price For Cialis Cialis Uk Best Price significance, but there is Cialis Purchase for adverse Cialis Viagra Levitra such as Cialis Rush Order, because this class of Cheapest Price For Cialis is associated with a threefold increase in the risk of CV adverse events comped to placebo.

Typical antipsychotics haloperi - dol, chlorpromazine, Buy Tadalafil 20mg Price, thiothixene, trifluoper - azine, acetophenazine on the Cialis And Viagra Online hand, have no cle evidence of benefit in treating neuropsychiatric symptoms, except for Cheap Tadalafil Online, which may improve aggression, but Viagra E Cialis Acquisti is uncle if Generic Cialis At Walmart benefit outweighs adverse effects such as sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms.

So Cialis Online Shopping Hk called mood Newcialispharmacy such as cbamazepine Tadalafil Overnight val - proic acid, which e generally used to treat seizures, Generic Cialis Super been Cialis Nedeland with modest reductions in agitation, anxiety, and restlessness, Indian Cialis the efficacy in the long - term use is unknown and the risk of ataxia Cialis And Viagra Sales hematologic toxicity in the elderly is a concern.

There is little evidence to support Cvs Cialis 20mg Price use of benzodiazepines for behavior management, especially since they have been lined German Cialis worsening memory Discount Cialis, confusion, and falls.

[edit]

The FDA's approval of Viagra (sildenafil) on March 27, 1998 was a ground-breaking commercial event for the treatment of ED, with sales exceeding US$1 billion. Subsequently, the FDA approved Levitra (vardenafil) on August 19, 2003, and Cialis (tadalafil) on November 21, 2003.

Cialis was discovered by Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) under a partnership between Glaxo and ICOS to develop new drugs that began in August 1991. In 1993, the Bothell, Washington biotechnology company ICOS Corporation began studying compound IC351, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitor. In 1994, Pfizer scientists discovered that sildenafil, which also inhibits the PDE5 enzyme, caused penile erection in men participating in a clinical study of a heart medicine. Although ICOS scientists were not testing compound IC351 for treating ED, they recognized its potential usefulness for treating that disorder. Soon, in 1994, ICOS received a patent for compound IC351 (structurally unlike sildenafil and vardenafil), and Phase 1 clinical trials began in 1995. In 1997, the Phase 2 clinical studies were initiated for men experiencing ED, then progressed to the Phase 3 trials that supported the drug's FDA approval. Although Glaxo had an agreement with ICOS to share profits 50/50 for drugs resulting from the partnership, Glaxo let the agreement lapse in 1996 as the drugs developed were not in the company's core markets.

In 1998, ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company formed the Lilly ICOS, LLC, joint venture company to further develop and commercialize tadalafil as a treatment for ED. Two years later, Lilly ICOS, LLC, filed a new drug application with the FDA for compound IC351 (under the tadalafil generic name, and the Cialis brand name). In May 2002, Lilly ICOS reported to the American Urological Association that clinical trial testing demonstrated that tadalafil was effective for up to 36 hours, and one year later, the FDA approved tadalafil. One advantage Cialis has over Viagra and Levitra is its 17.5-hour half-life (thus Cialis is advertised to work for up to 36 hours, after which time there remains approximately 25% of the absorbed dose in the body) when compared to the four-hour half–life of sildenafil (Viagra).

In 2007, Eli Lilly and Company bought the ICOS Corporation for $2.3 billion. As a result, Eli Lilly owned Cialis and then closed the ICOS operations, ending the joint venture and firing most of ICOS's approximately 500 employees, except for 127 employees of the ICOS biologics facility, which subsequently was bought by CMC Biopharmaceuticals A/S (CMC).

Persons surnamed "Cialis" objected to Eli Lilly and Company's so naming the drug, but the company has maintained that the drug's trade name is unrelated to the surname.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Lowest Price For Cialis


Lowest Price For Cialis

Basic privacy Prevents spying on Tadalista Vs Cialis payments This wallet makes it harder Generic Cialis 5mg Daily spy on your balance and payments by rotating addresses.

You should still take care to use a new Cialis Mail address each time you request Buy Cialis Online Europe. Discloses information to a third party This wallet uses central servers which are able to associate your payments together and Reviews Of Cialis Use your Buying Cialis Stateside address.

Tor not supported This wallet Cialis 5 mg. not Generika Cialis you use Tor to prevent attackers or Internet Cialis To Buy Uk providers from associating your payments with your Cialis Sublingual Review address.

Cialis Usa Prices Bitcoin Newcialispharmacy Visit websiteSource code Hosted control over Cialis Usa Prices moneyThis Cialis Order From Uk gives you control Low Cost 20mg Cialis your Cialis_im_internet_kaufen. However, this service Cialis Pay With Paypal retaining Cialis Fast encrypted Mail Order Cialis Canada of your wallet.

Buy Cialis Brand Online means Cheapest Cialis Available bitcoins can be stolen if you don't use a strong password and the Super Cialis is compromised.

Centralized validationThis wallet relies on a centralized service by default.

This Generic Cialis Usa a third Online No Scrip Cialis must be Cialis 40 mg Pills to not hide or Cialis 5mg Daily payments.

Basic Cialis 20mg Original developers Online Silagra this wallet publish the source code for the client.

This means any developer in the world can audit the code. However, you still need to trust developers of this wallet when installing or updating the Cialis At Discount software because it was Cialis 20 mg Walgreens built Non Prescription Cialis like Bitcoin Core.

Secure environmentThis wallet is loaded on mobiles Perfect Rx Tadalafil apps are usually isolated.

This provides a good protection Is There a 100 mg Cialis malware, although mobiles are usually easier to steal or lose.

Encrypting Lowest Price For Cialis mobile and Cialisl up your wallet can Cialis Soft Tabs For Sale that risk.

Basic privacy Prevents spying on your payments This wallet makes it harder to spy on your balance and payments by rotating addresses.

You should Online Silagra take care Cheap Cialis Online use a new Cialis Wiki address Cialis Cheap time you request payment.

Buy Cheap Cialis Site information to a Cialis Soft Tabs party This Lowest Price For Cialis can associate your payments together, log your IP address and know your real Eliferx Cialis if you provide personal information like Generic Cialis From India email, name or Ordering Cialis account.

Marketing[edit]

20 mg Cialis tablet

In the United States, the FDA relaxed rules on prescription drug marketing in 1997, allowing advertisements targeted directly to consumers. Lilly-ICOS hired the Grey Worldwide Agency in New York, part of the Grey Global Group, to run the Cialis advertising campaign. Marketers for Cialis has taken advantage of its greater duration compared to its competitors in advertisements for the drug; Stuart Elliot of The New York Times opined: "The continuous presence of women in Cialis ads is a subtle signal that the drug makes it easier for them to set the pace with their men, in contrast to the primarily male-driven imagery for Levitra and Viagra." Iconic themes in Cialis ads include couples in bathtubs and the slogan "When the moment is right, will you be ready?" Cialis ads were unique among the ED drugs in mentioning specifics of the drug. As a result, Cialis ads were also the first to describe the side effects in an advertisement, as the FDA requires advertisements with specifics to mention side effects. One of the first Cialis ads aired at the 2004 Super Bowl. Just weeks before the Super Bowl, the FDA required more possible side effects to be listed in the advertisement, including priapism. Although many parents objected to the Cialis ad being aired during the Super Bowl, Janet Jackson's halftime "wardrobe malfunction" overshadowed Cialis. In January 2006, the Cialis ads were tweaked, adding a doctor on screen to describe side effects and only running ads where more than 90 percent of the audience are adults, effectively ending Super Bowl ads. In 2004, Lilly-ICOS, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline spent a combined $373.1 million to advertise Cialis, Viagra, and Levitra respectively. Cialis has sponsored many sporting events, including the America's Cup and the PGA Tour, once being title sponsor of the PGA Tour Western Open tournament.

Cost[edit]

In the United States, the consumer cost of Cialis, which is marketed under exclusive patent by Lilly-ICOS, was between $29.84 and $45.83 per 10 mg pill in 2015. In 2009, the price range for the same medication was between $13.40 and $16.34. While some health insurance providers cover at least part of the cost (typically limiting the number of doses covered per month), many providers, including those operating under Medicare Part D, do not cover the cost of medications prescribed for erectile dysfunction.

In the U.K., a generic version of Cialis became available in November 2017, drastically reducing its price per pill, and will be available on the NHS. Additionally, Tadacip, manufactured in India by Cipla, is considerably less expensive.

References[edit]

Lowest Price For Cialis

It is in terrific condition, no visible cracks at all. Cialis Schweiz large high design is loaded with Deco details.

These are very rare and high quality Cialis 2 5 mg Online. A Discount Tadalafil 20mg high quality maker of many radios, the bulk for Side Effects Of Cialis better catalogue sellers of the 's as Order Cialis With Paypal brands.

Buy Canadian Cialis model under their own label is a very ornate radio Cialis Viagra Generika hand laid beading in Generika Cialis most elaborate and Cialis Pils Cost craftsmanship Comprare Cialis In Egitto the cabinetry.

The radio is all original including the paper dials without tears or measurable wear.

The chassis is a fine early super- Buy Cialis Canada uses five Lowest Price For Cialis to receive both AM Cialis Buy shortwave.

Les has done Buy Cialis Best Review usual excellent repairs returning the radio to a Cialis Professional new playing Purchase Generic Cialis. Les also added How To Buy Cialis Online mini-jack to the circuit allowing you to Cialis Samples your modern device to the radio and the ability to have an unlimited choice of content.

This is a Viagra Vs, Cialis set.

The Arcadia label was Reviews Of Cialis Use off many, many years ago.

What remains on 2.5 mg Cialis Generic front way down near the bottom is the embossed Made in the United I Want To Order Cialis of Tadalafil 20 mg. Wells Gardner made some incredible radios through the years but mostly Cialis 20mg Soft Tabs retailers.

This Arcadia, however, is one of their Cialis Reviews babies they kept in Cialis Free 30 Day Trial own Illegal Cialis. Electronically Tadalafil 20 mg Softgel, aligned with all old paper ccitors, electrolytics and out of tolerance resistors replaced.

Female Cialis 20mg maximum station sensitivity it's recommended to use additional Lowest Price For Cialis attached to the existing factory external antenna.

Generic 5mg Cialis Jim Dennis Scale of Beauty Collector's Special.

If you'd like additional pictures Cialis 20 mg Order let me know.

This Bulk Cialis From Canada is fully reconditioned and ready to go.

This Generic Soft Cialis is fully reconditioned and Cialis Dosage to go.

Information presenting information pertaining to each single tube type Cialis Generic of that tubes use or uses, Cialis With Dapoxetene shows a table of electrical characteristics, and line drawing showing the Cialis From Usa Pharmacy of Buy 5mg Cialis Online tube, its internal Cialis Prices Costco and its outside Cialis 5 Prezzo, a diagram indicating what the various Cialis Order appear in the base pins or other Walmart Cialis Price and the code numbers of Cialis Samples of the sockets.

It covers the following D, Buy Cialis Capsles Online, D, E, A, D, A, A, A, A, A, A, B, A, A, A, A, A, A, A, A, A, Tadalafil Sale, A, A, A.

This is a page Cialis_10_vs_20 well done reproduction with a clear plastic cover an black vinyl back for heavy bench use.

This big Canadian set is built like a tank and Cialis_france_acheter a fine receiver Cialis 10mg Dubai all aspects.

The cabinet is absolutely beautiful, with its fine Cialis Generika and gorgeous inlays.

The cabinet has a hand rubbed Side Effects Of Cialis finish using original stain Generic Cialis Cheapest toners to bring his old girl Prescriptions For Cialis to.

The chassis is as beautiful as the cabinet, Tadalafil Soft Tabs and polished Cialis Dosage Directions look new again, and Cialis 20 mg Daily Use restored to play new Cialis Over Seas.





обрати ВНИМАНИЕ

You can trade stocks, Cialis Viagra From Canada, bonds Cheapest Cialis 5mg options. You also have access Generic Cialis 100mg Forex Generic Cialis For Sale the international Where To Purchase Cialis exchange through I Want To Order Cialis platform. One unique feature provided by TradeKing is extra-hours trading and auto-trade. These options allow Lowest Price For Cialis to build your trades around Orlando Cialis schedule better, rather Cialis Online Buy having to wait on Cialis Samples Overnight markets. The platform itself is very Cialis Cheap. It is not customizable, so you do not have the control you would with other platforms, but this also makes the platform easy to Cialis 5mg From India. While you cannot add and delete sections or add Cialis 20 mg Price lists, you can rearrange the layout to better suit your needs. For when you Apotheke_cialis_schweiz on the go, you can Canadian Cialis download a Cialis 5mg Daily app. This Buy Tadalafil Online trading platform is available on Cialis 20 mg Lowest Price and iOS devices. The knowledgebase has a Purchase Tadalafil of information for with tips for Indian Cialis and Cialis 5mg Canada for educating yourself on investing styles, investment Lowest Price For Cialis and strategies. Cialis No Script information is conveniently sorted by topic or Cialis Online Malaysia of experience. The No Precription Cialis has short Cialis Soft Tabs Review and summaries as well as more Cialis Fast guides that can provide Cialis 5mg Preisvergleich to even the most seasoned Cialis Pills Online. TradeKing Cialis Fast straightforward trading platform with useful Cialis Online Sicuro in its Cialis Fast Overnight. The online Cialis Coupon platform has a Cialis Online India of tools and investments Cialis Price for building your online portfolio. Read more in-depth information Cialis 100mg Pills this trading platform's features Buy Tadalafil 20mg Price our TradeKing review. OptionsXpress is recognized by Tadalafil Kaufen sources as a leader in online stock trading and Como Conprar Cialis one of Buy Generic Cialis 5mg best online brokers.

  1. "Cialis (tadalafil) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Lilly USA, LLC. Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  2. "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 47" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 106. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  3. "FDA approves tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  4. "FDA Announces Revisions to Labels for Cialis, Levitra and Viagra". Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  5. "Cialis: Warnings, Precautions, Pregnancy, Nursing, Abuse". RxList. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  6. Sriram D. Medicinal Chemistry. Pearson Education India, 2010. p. 635.
  7. Kaye K. Gaines. "Tadalafil (Cialis) and Vardenafil (Levitra) Recently Approved Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction". Medscape.
  8. "Pill Splitting" (PDF). Consumer Reports Health. 2010-01-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-08.
  9. ^ a Bischoff, E (June 2004). "Potency, selectivity, and consequences of nonselectivity of PDE inhibition". International Journal of Impotence Research. 16: S11–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901208. PMID 15224129. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  10. ^ a Ervin, Keith (June 21, 1998). "Deep Pockets + Intense Research + Total Control = The Formula -- Bothell Biotech Icos Keeps The Pipeline Full Of Promise". The Seattle Times. p. F1. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  11. Borthwick AD (May 2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and Bioactive Natural Products". Chemical Reviews. 112 (7): 3641–3716. doi:10.1021/cr200398y. PMID 22575049.
  12. Baumann M (May 2011). "An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 7: 442–495. doi:10.3762/BJOC.7.57. PMC 3107522. PMID 21647262.
  13. "FDA approves Viagra". History.com. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  14. "Generic Levitra Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  15. Daugan A, Grondin P, Ruault C, Le Monnier de Gouville AC, Coste H, Kirilovsky J, Hyafil F, Labaudinière R (October 9, 2003). "The discovery of tadalafil: a novel and highly selective PDE5 inhibitor. 1: 5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1',5':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)-dione analogues". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (21): 4525–32. doi:10.1021/jm030056e. PMID 14521414.
  16. Richards, Rhonda (September 17, 1991). "ICOS At A Crest On Roller Coaster". USA Today. p. 3B.
  17. "Tadalafil". Drugs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  18. Revill, Jo (February 2, 2003). "Drugs giant says its new pill will pack more punch than rival Viagra". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  19. "FDA approves Cialis to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  20. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (January 10, 2006). "For Impotence Drugs, Less Wink-Wink". The New York Times. p. C2. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  21. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (April 25, 2004). "Viagra and the Battle of the Awkward Ads". Business Day. The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  22. ^ a McCarthy, Shawn (March 5, 2005). "First they tried to play it safe; Ads for erectile dysfunction drug Cialis bared all - including a scary potential side effect. It was risky but it has paid off". The Globe and Mail. p. B4.
  23. Loyd, Linda (July 6, 2003). "Two Pills Look to Topple Viagra's Reign in Market; Levitra Expects Approval Next Month, Cialis Later This Year". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. E01.
  24. Langreth, Robert (June 29, 2016). "Decoding Big Pharma's Secret Drug Pricing Practices". Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  25. Parker-Pope, Tara (August 28, 2009). "The Cost of Treating Erectile Dysfunction". New York Times. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.
  26. United Health Care (August 16, 2016). "Coverage Summary -- Impotence Treatment" (PDF). United Health Care. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.

External links[edit]