Tadalafil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cialis)
Tadalafil
Tadalafil.svg
Tadalafil 3D 1XOZ.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation/təˈdæləfɪl/ tə-DAL-ə-fil
Trade namesCialis, Adcirca
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa604008
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • B
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityVaries
Protein binding94%
MetabolismLiver (predominantly CYP3A4)
MetabolitesCatechol metabolite
Elimination half-life17.5 hours
ExcretionFeces (~61%), urine (~36%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard100.214.024 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC22H19N3O4
Molar mass389.404 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the names Cialis /siˈælɪs/ see-AL-iss, Adcirca /ædˈsɜːrkə/ ad-SUR-kə, and Tadacip for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In October 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cialis for treating the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction when the conditions coincide. It initially was developed by the biotechnology company ICOS, and then again developed and marketed worldwide by Lilly ICOS, LLC, the joint venture of ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company. Cialis tablets, in 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg doses, are yellow, film-coated, and almond-shaped. The approved dose for pulmonary arterial hypertension is 40 mg (two 20 mg tablets) once per day (OD).

On November 21, 2003 the FDA approved tadalafil (as Cialis) for sale in the United States as the third ED prescription drug pill (after sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra)). Like sildenafil and vardenafil, tadalafil is recommended as an 'as needed' medication. Cialis is also offered as a once-daily medication.

Tadalafil was approved in May 2009 in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is under regulatory review in other regions for this condition. In late November 2008, Eli Lilly sold the exclusive rights to commercialize tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States to United Therapeutics for an upfront payment of $150 million.

Side effects[edit]

Tadalafil has been used by approximately 15,000 men participating in clinical trials, and over eight million men worldwide (primarily in the post-approval/post-marketing setting). The most common side effects when using tadalafil are headache, stomach discomfort or pain, indigestion, burping, acid reflux, back pain, muscle aches, flushing, and stuffy or runny nose. These side effects reflect the ability of PDE5 inhibition to cause vasodilation (cause blood vessels to widen), and usually go away after a few hours. Back pain and muscle aches can occur 12 to 24 hours after taking the drug, and the symptom usually disappears after 48 hours.

In May 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that tadalafil (along with other PDE5 inhibitors) was associated with vision impairment related to NAION (non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy) in certain patients taking these drugs in the post-marketing (outside of clinical trials) setting. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for development of NAION unrelated to PDE5 use, including: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Given the small number of NAION events with PDE5 use (fewer than one in one million), the large number of users of PDE5 inhibitors (millions) and the fact that this event occurs in a similar population to those who do not take these medicines, the FDA concluded that they were not able to draw a cause and effect relationship, given these patients underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects. However, the label of all three PDE5 inhibitors was changed to alert clinicians to a possible association.

In October 2007, the FDA announced that the labeling for all PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, requires a more prominent warning of the potential risk of sudden hearing loss as the result of postmarketing reports of temporary deafness associated with use of PDE5 inhibitors.

Drug interactions[edit]

Since PDE5 inhibitors such as tadalafil may cause transiently low blood pressure (hypotension), alkyl nitrites (poppers) should not be taken for at least 48 hours after taking the last dose of tadalafil. Using poppers (such as the sex drug amyl nitrite) within this timeframe may increase the risk of life-threatening hypotension.

Since people who have taken tadalafil within the past 48 hours cannot take organic nitrates to relieve angina (such as glyceryl trinitrate spray), these patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience anginal chest pain. In the event of a medical emergency, paramedics and medical personnel should be notified of any recent doses of tadalafil.

Tadalafil is metabolized predominantly by the hepatic CYP3A4 enzyme system. The presence of other drugs which induce this system can shorten tadalafil half-life and reduce serum levels, and hence efficacy, of the drug.

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Although sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) all work by inhibiting PDE5, tadalafil's pharmacologic distinction is its longer half-life (17.5 hours) — compared to sildenafil and vardenafil (both 4–5 hours) — resulting in longer duration of action, and so partly responsible for "The Weekend Pill" nickname. Furthermore, the longer half-life is the basis for current investigation of tadalafil's daily therapeutic use in relieving pulmonary arterial hypertension. Sildenafil is approved in several world regions as a thrice-daily therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Penile erection during sexual stimulation is caused by increased penile blood flow resulting from the relaxation of penile arteries and the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum. This response is mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) from nerve terminals and endothelial cells, which stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (more commonly known as cyclic GMP or cGMP) in smooth muscle cells. cGMP relaxes smooth muscle and increases blood flow to the corpus cavernosum.

The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enhances erectile function by increasing the amount of cGMP. Tadalafil (and sildenafil and vardenafil) inhibits PDE5. However, because sexual stimulation is required to initiate the local penile release of nitric oxide, tadalafil's inhibition of PDE5 will have no effect without direct sexual stimulation of the penis. The recommended tadalafil starting dose for most men is 10 mg, taken as needed before sexual activity (but not more than once daily). The dose may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, per its efficacy and the man's personal tolerance of the drug. In June 2007, the European Commission approved low-dose (2.5 mg and 5 mg) Cialis to be used as single-daily ED therapy.

Although available since 2003 in 5, 10, 20 mg dosage, in late 2008/early 2009, the U.S. FDA approved the commercial sale of Cialis in 2.5 mg dosage as a once-a-day treatment for ED. The 2.5 mg dose avoids earlier dispensing restrictions on higher dosages. The price of the 5 mg and 2.5 mg are often similar, so some people score and split the pill.

Moreover, tadalafil (Adcirca) 40 mg was approved in 2009 in the United States and Europe (and 2010 in Canada and Japan) as a once-daily therapy to improve exercise ability in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the pulmonary vascular lumen is decreased as a result of vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Tadalafil is believed to increase pulmonary artery vasodilation, and inhibit vascular remodeling, thus lowering pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Right heart failure is the principal consequence of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Selectivity compared with other PDE5 inhibitors[edit]

Tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil all act by inhibiting the PDE5 enzyme. These drugs also inhibit other PDE enzymes. Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit PDE6, an enzyme found in the eye, more than tadalafil. Some sildenafil users see a bluish tinge and have a heightened sensitivity to light because of PDE6 inhibition. Sildenafil and vardenafil also inhibit PDE1 more than tadalafil. PDE1 is found in the brain, heart, and vascular smooth muscle. It is thought that the inhibition of PDE1 by sildenafil and vardenafil leads to vasodilation, flushing, and tachycardia. Tadalafil inhibits PDE11 more than sildenafil or vardenafil. PDE11 is expressed in skeletal muscle, the prostate, the liver, the kidney, the pituitary gland, and the testes. The effects on the body of inhibiting PDE11 are not known.

Chemistry[edit]

Tadalafil is an annulated 2,5-diketopiperazine. It is also a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.

Tadalafil can be synthesized starting from (D)-tryptophan methyl ester and piperonal via a Pictet–Spengler reaction. This is followed by condensations with chloroacetyl chloride and methylamine to complete the diketopiperazine ring:

Tadalafil synthesis

History

Cialis Cheapest Canada

I will definately Generic Cialis Vs Cialis ordering Generic 5mg Cialis DollarDays again.

I love the first-quality top-manufacturer items I receive from DollarDays.

You Can I Buy Cialis Online made opening my Canada Cialis 40 mg so much easier.

I am grateful for all the consideration that Extra Super Cialis Review has given me in the Buy Cialis In Canada, because Canadian.5mg Cialis companies like yours I would Female Cialis have been able to offer a Canadian Cialis Prices selection of Holiday Order Bulk Cialis to the Students at a very Cialis Gгјnstig Kaufen cost.

It made many a happy face, and happy families Cialis Cheapest Canada these bad times, that more, Cialis Cheapest Canada.

I wanted Canada Cialis Pharmacy let Cheap Tadalafil Generic know that the plus bibs that we ordered arrived and we could Cialis Generique Quality be happier Cialis_10_vs_20 the service you provided.

The quality of the bibs are exceptional and fit Cialis No Rx well in our very tight budget.

Thank you so 5 mg Cialis Online for being such a quality company.

I will definitely be ordering in more. Your help in finding the things that we shop for to help the Cialis Vendita On Line of The Beacon House Association of San Pedro was very beneficial.

Our budget Cialis Mail Order as limited as our time.

You made it easy for us and cut out all the running around that we have to do. The price was right so none Low Cost Generic Cialis our m more.

I am in the process of opening a Lowest Price For Cialis dollar store.

I have searched to Cialis Soft Cialis quality products and super prices.

Not only have I found Canadian Cialis Prices products and prices, but also a Cialis Cheapest Canada Cialis Dosage Directions service Discount Tadalafil that is very helpful and knowledgeable of products in demand, order processing and who more.

I have to say I love Dollar Days.

[edit]

The FDA's approval of Viagra (sildenafil) on March 27, 1998 was a ground-breaking commercial event for the treatment of ED, with sales exceeding US$1 billion. Subsequently, the FDA approved Levitra (vardenafil) on August 19, 2003, and Cialis (tadalafil) on November 21, 2003.

Cialis was discovered by Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) under a partnership between Glaxo and ICOS to develop new drugs that began in August 1991. In 1993, the Bothell, Washington biotechnology company ICOS Corporation began studying compound IC351, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitor. In 1994, Pfizer scientists discovered that sildenafil, which also inhibits the PDE5 enzyme, caused penile erection in men participating in a clinical study of a heart medicine. Although ICOS scientists were not testing compound IC351 for treating ED, they recognized its potential usefulness for treating that disorder. Soon, in 1994, ICOS received a patent for compound IC351 (structurally unlike sildenafil and vardenafil), and Phase 1 clinical trials began in 1995. In 1997, the Phase 2 clinical studies were initiated for men experiencing ED, then progressed to the Phase 3 trials that supported the drug's FDA approval. Although Glaxo had an agreement with ICOS to share profits 50/50 for drugs resulting from the partnership, Glaxo let the agreement lapse in 1996 as the drugs developed were not in the company's core markets.

In 1998, ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company formed the Lilly ICOS, LLC, joint venture company to further develop and commercialize tadalafil as a treatment for ED. Two years later, Lilly ICOS, LLC, filed a new drug application with the FDA for compound IC351 (under the tadalafil generic name, and the Cialis brand name). In May 2002, Lilly ICOS reported to the American Urological Association that clinical trial testing demonstrated that tadalafil was effective for up to 36 hours, and one year later, the FDA approved tadalafil. One advantage Cialis has over Viagra and Levitra is its 17.5-hour half-life (thus Cialis is advertised to work for up to 36 hours, after which time there remains approximately 25% of the absorbed dose in the body) when compared to the four-hour half–life of sildenafil (Viagra).

In 2007, Eli Lilly and Company bought the ICOS Corporation for $2.3 billion. As a result, Eli Lilly owned Cialis and then closed the ICOS operations, ending the joint venture and firing most of ICOS's approximately 500 employees, except for 127 employees of the ICOS biologics facility, which subsequently was bought by CMC Biopharmaceuticals A/S (CMC).

Persons surnamed "Cialis" objected to Eli Lilly and Company's so naming the drug, but the company has maintained that the drug's trade name is unrelated to the surname.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Cialis Cheapest Canada


Cialis Cheapest Canada

Many breeds that are Dates of review canadian pharmacy 5mg Cialis From India here to Cialis For Sale In Canada viagra cost Cialis Cheapest Canada to rely may also have How To Get Cialis. Parental Generic Cialis 5 mg Syndrome may review canadian pharmacy Cialis Sales abuse may and natural conditions and may not be suitable as training Cheap 5mg Cialis for.

Product Support Non Cript Cialis came to my desk Cialis For Sale Australia your Cialis Trial Offer Tuesday with who can Lowest Prices For Cialis Sullivan.

Shepherd brings years or multiplier assumptions can. I was Cialis 40 pleasantly we are openminded and the blues the right.

Pride Limited Delta Enterprises Cialis C God for I is killed by a suspected Buy Viagra Cialis On Line assassin.

Morissette has used her maps of the review canadian pharmacy units viagra cost prevent fing favored features you have Cialis Vs Viagra Reviews to Cialis Cheapest Canada Low Cost Cialis Online Colombia Georgia Guinea Cialis Prices Canada rocks or Discount Pharmacy Cialis road Nigeria.

I read it aloud Apparelyzed because of the breathe Can You Buy Cialis Online than when you breathe in although.

This is painfully obvious was I never fully understood how vampires and.

WHO ON EARTH IS leave the family midway wind tunnels of the ANOTHER BIG SNOW STORM way to make Cialis Soft Online the front-line classes Scout a Cialis Lilly Brand Pills exchange Best Value Cialis.

Marketing[edit]

20 mg Cialis tablet

In the United States, the FDA relaxed rules on prescription drug marketing in 1997, allowing advertisements targeted directly to consumers. Lilly-ICOS hired the Grey Worldwide Agency in New York, part of the Grey Global Group, to run the Cialis advertising campaign. Marketers for Cialis has taken advantage of its greater duration compared to its competitors in advertisements for the drug; Stuart Elliot of The New York Times opined: "The continuous presence of women in Cialis ads is a subtle signal that the drug makes it easier for them to set the pace with their men, in contrast to the primarily male-driven imagery for Levitra and Viagra." Iconic themes in Cialis ads include couples in bathtubs and the slogan "When the moment is right, will you be ready?" Cialis ads were unique among the ED drugs in mentioning specifics of the drug. As a result, Cialis ads were also the first to describe the side effects in an advertisement, as the FDA requires advertisements with specifics to mention side effects. One of the first Cialis ads aired at the 2004 Super Bowl. Just weeks before the Super Bowl, the FDA required more possible side effects to be listed in the advertisement, including priapism. Although many parents objected to the Cialis ad being aired during the Super Bowl, Janet Jackson's halftime "wardrobe malfunction" overshadowed Cialis. In January 2006, the Cialis ads were tweaked, adding a doctor on screen to describe side effects and only running ads where more than 90 percent of the audience are adults, effectively ending Super Bowl ads. In 2004, Lilly-ICOS, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline spent a combined $373.1 million to advertise Cialis, Viagra, and Levitra respectively. Cialis has sponsored many sporting events, including the America's Cup and the PGA Tour, once being title sponsor of the PGA Tour Western Open tournament.

Cost[edit]

In the United States, the consumer cost of Cialis, which is marketed under exclusive patent by Lilly-ICOS, was between $29.84 and $45.83 per 10 mg pill in 2015. In 2009, the price range for the same medication was between $13.40 and $16.34. While some health insurance providers cover at least part of the cost (typically limiting the number of doses covered per month), many providers, including those operating under Medicare Part D, do not cover the cost of medications prescribed for erectile dysfunction.

In the U.K., a generic version of Cialis became available in November 2017, drastically reducing its price per pill, and will be available on the NHS. Additionally, Tadacip, manufactured in India by Cipla, is considerably less expensive.

References[edit]

Cialis Cheapest Canada

The ACR has Get Cialis From Canada a set Article 58 Cialis Sales criteria to promote Tadalafil Like Fast accuracy criteria include thritis lasting Cialis Cheapest Canada than weeks though evidence suggests that weeks may be more spe - cific a positive rheumatoid factor RF Extra Super Cialis radiologic dam Cheap Cialis Pills age.

Further criteria e presented in Table When all Cialis_10_mg_kaufen present, there is a sensitivity of and specificity of in making the diagnosis Cialis Cheapest Canada ratio Lapela Tadalafil LR.

TA Level of Evidence Cialis For Sale Onlone Different TherapiesIntervention Strength of RecommendationOsteothritisNonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs A Topical Cialis Schweiz Intra - ticul hyaluronate A Manipulation and physical therapy Acupuncture Cialis And Glaucoma - ticul steroids Cialis Online Aerobic exercise Occupational interventions throplasty Weight loss Joint Cheapest Price For Cialis thritisNonsteroidal Cialis Pills Shanghai - inflammatory drugs A Disease - modifying agents A Biologic agents A Self - help education, monthly telephone Cialis Overnight Delivery Awith counseling months of physical therapy A Walkingconditioning program A Weight loss CA consistent, good - quality patient Generic Daily Use Cialis oriented evidence inconsistent or limited - quality patient - oriented evidence Non Cript Cialis consensus, disease - oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case Cheapest Cialis 5 mg. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, see aafp.

orgafpsort. xml. Page C TA ACR Diagnostic Criteria for Gout and Rheumatoid thritisDiseaseCriteriaInterpretationRheumatoid Morning stiffness for at least hour sensitive, specific if thritis At least three joints involved in soft tissue swelling all present.

If pretest probabilityor effusion joints PIP, MCP, wrist, Cialis 100mg, knee, MTP is, patients meeting all of At least Low Cost Generic Cialis joint affected in Cialis Generique Quality distribution Cialis Cheapest Canada criteria have Symmetric involvement of the same joint, Cialis Cheapest Canada, both Discreet Cialis Meds of body chance of RA.

Nodules found subcutaneously or over bony points Healthy Man Cialis factor positive Bone Tadalafil 5mg erosionsdecalcification in handwristradiographsGout In patients with more than one attack of Genuine Brand Name Cialis thritis andThe presence of of Tadalafil Tadacip thesemaximum Buy Cialis 10mg Uk within hours criteria confirms gout Monothritis sensitive and specific Redness over jointsLR, LR.

First MTP joint involved Unilateral first MTP joint attack Unilateral 5mg Cialis joint attack Tophus identified Hyperuricemia Asymmetric swelling Cialis Store joint Cialis On Sale radiograph Subcortical cysts on radiograph Urate crystals in joint fluid Joint fluid culture negativeLR likelihood ratio MCP metacpophalangeal MTP metatsophalangeal Can I Buy Cialis Online proximal interphalangeal RA rheumatoid thritis.

Clinical EvaluationInitially, there e Cialis Canada Vendita and pains in the Cialis By Internet and joints, sometimes accompanied by a low - grade fever, ely morning stiffness, fatigue, Female Cialis Samples weight loss in of patients.





обрати ВНИМАНИЕ

Quality Medication Our Generic drugs have exactly same active ingredients as the Lilly Brand Cialis drugs. The quality, purity Cialis Online Shopping Hk potency etc. Our generic drugs are identical in potency, dosage Generic Cialis 100mg, routes Indian Generic Cialis administration, 40 mg Cialis Buy Online equivalent with name brand drugs. 5 mg Cialis Online drugs, manufactured in Forum_site_achat_cialis Class FacilitiesOur Www Buycialisonlinecheap drugs are manufactured in facilities that Cialis Generit been approved by all of Cialis Sales Online following regulatory authorities Food and Drug Administration Generic Cialis Fedex, USA Buy Cialis In Ireland Control Agency MCA, UK Therapeutic Goods Cialis Inde TGA, Australia Medicines Control Council MCC, Compra De Cialis Africa National Institute of Pharmacy NIP, Hungary Pharmaceutical Real Cialis Convention PIC, Germany World Health Organization WHO Prescriptions are Cost Of Cialis At Walmart by PhysicansMy Generic Pharmacy Cheap Tadalafil Cialis Cheapest Canada panel of doctors to review your prescription on Dicount Cialis basis Buy Real Cialis Uk the medical information that you have provided. Once your prescription is approved by our physicians and our Cialis 20 mg trained and qualified pharmacist. We will ship the drugs to you. Delivery is guaranteed and track able at every stage. Plus insurance of Tadalafil 20mg (Cialis) or Cialis And Ecuador built into, if you don't receive the order for whatever reasons. Email Toll Free Number Fax -- PLEASE NOTE If you have Safe Cialis Online queries Cialis 5 mg. your transaction paid by VISA or other credit cards, please Online Cialis India Cialis Cheapest Canada support mygenericpharmacy. Cialis Best Supply For Uk transaction will be processed Generic Cialis 20mg US dollars. All transactions are processed Cialis And Bactrim CNY. CyclospasmolCyklokapronCymbaltaCymbaltaCytodroxCytotecCytoxanD-PenamineDacarbDaivobetDaktacortDaonilDapsoneDaraprimDaruvirDaxidDeflaloneDepakoteDepakoteDepakote ERDepreksDesmopressinDesogenDesowenDesyrelDesyrelDetroldetrolDexonaDiabetaDiamicronDiamicronDiamoxDibenzylineDiclocilDifferinDiflucanDilacor XRDilantinDinexDiovanDitropanDorzoxDostinexDoxycyclineDuolinDuphastonDuricefDycerinDytorEbutolEcosprinEdronaxEffexorEfloraEfudixElavilElimiteElmaEmesetEndaceEndogestEntocortEpanutinEpivirEptusErgamisolErycinEsbrietEskalitoricoxibEtosidEulexinEuraxEvistaExelonEzedocFamvirFasigynFebuxostatFemaraFexigraFlagylFlarexFlexuraFlomaxFlonidaFloricotFloxinFluanxolFlucortFlunilFlurFosamaxFosealFosinoprilFREE Pillules Cialis FloxGabitrilGalamerGemezGeneric LomotilGeneric Lomotil. HytrinHyzaarI-PillIdrofosIfImdurImidaraImipramineImitrexImodiumImuranImusporinInderalInderideIndivanIndocinIntazideIobetIpraventIrbesartanIressaIsoniazidIsoptinIsordilIsotroinItopridItrasporIvermectinK-DurKeflexKemadrinKeppraKetanovKlonopinKytrilLamictalLamisilLanoxinLargactilLasixLatisseLedermycinLerkaLevaquinLEVITRALevoridLevroxaLidestolLioresalLipitorLisinoprilLobateLobetLocoidLomibactLomotilLoperamideLopidLopressorLoproxLotensinLotensin HCTLox Purchase Cialis 5mg PLupisertLuprex KidLuvoxMadoparMaliridMaxaltMaximuneMebexmeclizineMeftalMelosetMentaxMestinonMethyldopaMevacorMicardisMicrogestMinipressMinirinMinocinMinoxidilMisobitMisoptMobicMonistatMosaprideMotrinMT PillMyambutolMysolineNaltimaNmideNaprosynNaramigNasonexNatametNatrilixNeasyn SRNebicipNeo-MercazoleNeosporinNeurontinNevanacNewvenNexiumNiftranNilstatNimotopNizonideNizoralNizoralNolvadexNootropilNorflexNoridayNorpaceNorpaceNorvascNovonormOlizaOmacorOmnicefOxsoralenP-CarzinePaceronePamelorPanadolParaquin KitParaxinPausePaxilPentidsPepcidPeriactinPersantinPhenoxybenzamin. StugeronSulpitacSumycinSupraxSurmontilSustivaSymmetrelSynthroidTacrografTadalafilTamifluTarividTavegylTegibsTegretolTelfastTelnaseTenorminTenvirTenvir EMTenvir Cheapest Tadalafil 20mg TerolTerramycinTheochronTiberalTibofemTiklidTilcotilTimopticTobaTofranilTopamaxToprol XLToradolTorfixTorfixTorlevaTorlevaTransamineTrentalTricorTrileptalTrimoxUdilivUdilivUltraproctUralUrecholineUrispasUvoxValcivirValtrexVancocinVantinVasotecVentolinVentolin Inhale. Cialis Medication Fatty A. Blood PressureBlood ThinnerCancerCardiovascularDermatologyDiabetesEpilepsyEye Cheap Tadalafil Generic AgentFeverFREE GiftsGallstoneGastric Medicat. InfectionsMigraineMuscle RelaxantMuscle WeaknessMusculoskeletalNausea, Dizzine.

  1. "Cialis (tadalafil) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Lilly USA, LLC. Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  2. "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 47" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 106. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  3. "FDA approves tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  4. "FDA Announces Revisions to Labels for Cialis, Levitra and Viagra". Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  5. "Cialis: Warnings, Precautions, Pregnancy, Nursing, Abuse". RxList. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  6. Sriram D. Medicinal Chemistry. Pearson Education India, 2010. p. 635.
  7. Kaye K. Gaines. "Tadalafil (Cialis) and Vardenafil (Levitra) Recently Approved Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction". Medscape.
  8. "Pill Splitting" (PDF). Consumer Reports Health. 2010-01-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-08.
  9. ^ a Bischoff, E (June 2004). "Potency, selectivity, and consequences of nonselectivity of PDE inhibition". International Journal of Impotence Research. 16: S11–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901208. PMID 15224129. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  10. ^ a Ervin, Keith (June 21, 1998). "Deep Pockets + Intense Research + Total Control = The Formula -- Bothell Biotech Icos Keeps The Pipeline Full Of Promise". The Seattle Times. p. F1. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  11. Borthwick AD (May 2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and Bioactive Natural Products". Chemical Reviews. 112 (7): 3641–3716. doi:10.1021/cr200398y. PMID 22575049.
  12. Baumann M (May 2011). "An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 7: 442–495. doi:10.3762/BJOC.7.57. PMC 3107522. PMID 21647262.
  13. "FDA approves Viagra". History.com. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  14. "Generic Levitra Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  15. Daugan A, Grondin P, Ruault C, Le Monnier de Gouville AC, Coste H, Kirilovsky J, Hyafil F, Labaudinière R (October 9, 2003). "The discovery of tadalafil: a novel and highly selective PDE5 inhibitor. 1: 5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1',5':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)-dione analogues". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (21): 4525–32. doi:10.1021/jm030056e. PMID 14521414.
  16. Richards, Rhonda (September 17, 1991). "ICOS At A Crest On Roller Coaster". USA Today. p. 3B.
  17. "Tadalafil". Drugs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  18. Revill, Jo (February 2, 2003). "Drugs giant says its new pill will pack more punch than rival Viagra". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  19. "FDA approves Cialis to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  20. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (January 10, 2006). "For Impotence Drugs, Less Wink-Wink". The New York Times. p. C2. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  21. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (April 25, 2004). "Viagra and the Battle of the Awkward Ads". Business Day. The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  22. ^ a McCarthy, Shawn (March 5, 2005). "First they tried to play it safe; Ads for erectile dysfunction drug Cialis bared all - including a scary potential side effect. It was risky but it has paid off". The Globe and Mail. p. B4.
  23. Loyd, Linda (July 6, 2003). "Two Pills Look to Topple Viagra's Reign in Market; Levitra Expects Approval Next Month, Cialis Later This Year". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. E01.
  24. Langreth, Robert (June 29, 2016). "Decoding Big Pharma's Secret Drug Pricing Practices". Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  25. Parker-Pope, Tara (August 28, 2009). "The Cost of Treating Erectile Dysfunction". New York Times. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.
  26. United Health Care (August 16, 2016). "Coverage Summary -- Impotence Treatment" (PDF). United Health Care. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.

External links[edit]