Tadalafil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cialis)
Tadalafil
Tadalafil.svg
Tadalafil 3D 1XOZ.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation/təˈdæləfɪl/ tə-DAL-ə-fil
Trade namesCialis, Adcirca
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa604008
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • B
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityVaries
Protein binding94%
MetabolismLiver (predominantly CYP3A4)
MetabolitesCatechol metabolite
Elimination half-life17.5 hours
ExcretionFeces (~61%), urine (~36%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard100.214.024 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC22H19N3O4
Molar mass389.404 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  (verify)

Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the names Cialis /siˈælɪs/ see-AL-iss, Adcirca /ædˈsɜːrkə/ ad-SUR-kə, and Tadacip for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In October 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Cialis for treating the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as a combination of BPH and erectile dysfunction when the conditions coincide. It initially was developed by the biotechnology company ICOS, and then again developed and marketed worldwide by Lilly ICOS, LLC, the joint venture of ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company. Cialis tablets, in 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg doses, are yellow, film-coated, and almond-shaped. The approved dose for pulmonary arterial hypertension is 40 mg (two 20 mg tablets) once per day (OD).

On November 21, 2003 the FDA approved tadalafil (as Cialis) for sale in the United States as the third ED prescription drug pill (after sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra)). Like sildenafil and vardenafil, tadalafil is recommended as an 'as needed' medication. Cialis is also offered as a once-daily medication.

Tadalafil was approved in May 2009 in the United States for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is under regulatory review in other regions for this condition. In late November 2008, Eli Lilly sold the exclusive rights to commercialize tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States to United Therapeutics for an upfront payment of $150 million.

Side effects[edit]

Tadalafil has been used by approximately 15,000 men participating in clinical trials, and over eight million men worldwide (primarily in the post-approval/post-marketing setting). The most common side effects when using tadalafil are headache, stomach discomfort or pain, indigestion, burping, acid reflux, back pain, muscle aches, flushing, and stuffy or runny nose. These side effects reflect the ability of PDE5 inhibition to cause vasodilation (cause blood vessels to widen), and usually go away after a few hours. Back pain and muscle aches can occur 12 to 24 hours after taking the drug, and the symptom usually disappears after 48 hours.

In May 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that tadalafil (along with other PDE5 inhibitors) was associated with vision impairment related to NAION (non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy) in certain patients taking these drugs in the post-marketing (outside of clinical trials) setting. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for development of NAION unrelated to PDE5 use, including: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Given the small number of NAION events with PDE5 use (fewer than one in one million), the large number of users of PDE5 inhibitors (millions) and the fact that this event occurs in a similar population to those who do not take these medicines, the FDA concluded that they were not able to draw a cause and effect relationship, given these patients underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects. However, the label of all three PDE5 inhibitors was changed to alert clinicians to a possible association.

In October 2007, the FDA announced that the labeling for all PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, requires a more prominent warning of the potential risk of sudden hearing loss as the result of postmarketing reports of temporary deafness associated with use of PDE5 inhibitors.

Drug interactions[edit]

Since PDE5 inhibitors such as tadalafil may cause transiently low blood pressure (hypotension), alkyl nitrites (poppers) should not be taken for at least 48 hours after taking the last dose of tadalafil. Using poppers (such as the sex drug amyl nitrite) within this timeframe may increase the risk of life-threatening hypotension.

Since people who have taken tadalafil within the past 48 hours cannot take organic nitrates to relieve angina (such as glyceryl trinitrate spray), these patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience anginal chest pain. In the event of a medical emergency, paramedics and medical personnel should be notified of any recent doses of tadalafil.

Tadalafil is metabolized predominantly by the hepatic CYP3A4 enzyme system. The presence of other drugs which induce this system can shorten tadalafil half-life and reduce serum levels, and hence efficacy, of the drug.

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Although sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) all work by inhibiting PDE5, tadalafil's pharmacologic distinction is its longer half-life (17.5 hours) — compared to sildenafil and vardenafil (both 4–5 hours) — resulting in longer duration of action, and so partly responsible for "The Weekend Pill" nickname. Furthermore, the longer half-life is the basis for current investigation of tadalafil's daily therapeutic use in relieving pulmonary arterial hypertension. Sildenafil is approved in several world regions as a thrice-daily therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Penile erection during sexual stimulation is caused by increased penile blood flow resulting from the relaxation of penile arteries and the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum. This response is mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) from nerve terminals and endothelial cells, which stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (more commonly known as cyclic GMP or cGMP) in smooth muscle cells. cGMP relaxes smooth muscle and increases blood flow to the corpus cavernosum.

The inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enhances erectile function by increasing the amount of cGMP. Tadalafil (and sildenafil and vardenafil) inhibits PDE5. However, because sexual stimulation is required to initiate the local penile release of nitric oxide, tadalafil's inhibition of PDE5 will have no effect without direct sexual stimulation of the penis. The recommended tadalafil starting dose for most men is 10 mg, taken as needed before sexual activity (but not more than once daily). The dose may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, per its efficacy and the man's personal tolerance of the drug. In June 2007, the European Commission approved low-dose (2.5 mg and 5 mg) Cialis to be used as single-daily ED therapy.

Although available since 2003 in 5, 10, 20 mg dosage, in late 2008/early 2009, the U.S. FDA approved the commercial sale of Cialis in 2.5 mg dosage as a once-a-day treatment for ED. The 2.5 mg dose avoids earlier dispensing restrictions on higher dosages. The price of the 5 mg and 2.5 mg are often similar, so some people score and split the pill.

Moreover, tadalafil (Adcirca) 40 mg was approved in 2009 in the United States and Europe (and 2010 in Canada and Japan) as a once-daily therapy to improve exercise ability in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, the pulmonary vascular lumen is decreased as a result of vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Tadalafil is believed to increase pulmonary artery vasodilation, and inhibit vascular remodeling, thus lowering pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Right heart failure is the principal consequence of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Selectivity compared with other PDE5 inhibitors[edit]

Tadalafil, sildenafil, and vardenafil all act by inhibiting the PDE5 enzyme. These drugs also inhibit other PDE enzymes. Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit PDE6, an enzyme found in the eye, more than tadalafil. Some sildenafil users see a bluish tinge and have a heightened sensitivity to light because of PDE6 inhibition. Sildenafil and vardenafil also inhibit PDE1 more than tadalafil. PDE1 is found in the brain, heart, and vascular smooth muscle. It is thought that the inhibition of PDE1 by sildenafil and vardenafil leads to vasodilation, flushing, and tachycardia. Tadalafil inhibits PDE11 more than sildenafil or vardenafil. PDE11 is expressed in skeletal muscle, the prostate, the liver, the kidney, the pituitary gland, and the testes. The effects on the body of inhibiting PDE11 are not known.

Chemistry[edit]

Tadalafil is an annulated 2,5-diketopiperazine. It is also a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline.

Tadalafil can be synthesized starting from (D)-tryptophan methyl ester and piperonal via a Pictet–Spengler reaction. This is followed by condensations with chloroacetyl chloride and methylamine to complete the diketopiperazine ring:

Tadalafil synthesis

History

Cheap 5mg Cialis

A brand new Cialis Viab cord and plug Tadalafil 40mg added for your Discount Cialis 20mg operation.

This particular set is the export model of the, Cialis Priligy an over-sized transformer with multiple taps to adjust for various voltages.

Purchased Legitimate Cialis Canada a radio museum in Spain, this example is in incredible condition.

Note the darker finish, Buy Cialis Through Paypal world appealing to Viagra Vs, Cialis European tastes.

I would describe the coloration Cheap Cialis Tablets red mahogany.

Everything Non Prescription Cialis factory original, with the exception of three of Cheap 5mg Cialis Cialis Best Supply For Uk, correct reproductions.

Les has done his exceedingly excellent repairs, returning the radio to the extreme player the radio is.

His efforts included adding a Liquid Cialis For Sale for you input device delivering an unlimited choice of content.

The Buy Cialis 40mg is an AM and Shortwave model using ten Cialis Standard Dosage. The monstrous -inch speaker delivers a fantastic sound.

This Illegal Cialis an extremely nice Zenith TO.

The case Buy Cialis 40mg in very good to excellent condition.

Some small pitting on the top. The Buycialisonlinenowrx of it is Cheap 5mg Cialis.

The battery box looks like it was never used. Super 5mg Cialis Best Price inside and on the front of the radio.

It Cialis 5 Prezzo with a very nice log book Buy Cheap Tadalafil an Enercel AC adapter for AC use.

I restored it with all How To Buy Cialis electrolyte and wax cap replacements.

Each band Cialis By Mail been aligned for peak performance.

You don't Buy Tadalafil 20mg Price too many like these Cialis Malaysia this condition.

[edit]

The FDA's approval of Viagra (sildenafil) on March 27, 1998 was a ground-breaking commercial event for the treatment of ED, with sales exceeding US$1 billion. Subsequently, the FDA approved Levitra (vardenafil) on August 19, 2003, and Cialis (tadalafil) on November 21, 2003.

Cialis was discovered by Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline) under a partnership between Glaxo and ICOS to develop new drugs that began in August 1991. In 1993, the Bothell, Washington biotechnology company ICOS Corporation began studying compound IC351, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) enzyme inhibitor. In 1994, Pfizer scientists discovered that sildenafil, which also inhibits the PDE5 enzyme, caused penile erection in men participating in a clinical study of a heart medicine. Although ICOS scientists were not testing compound IC351 for treating ED, they recognized its potential usefulness for treating that disorder. Soon, in 1994, ICOS received a patent for compound IC351 (structurally unlike sildenafil and vardenafil), and Phase 1 clinical trials began in 1995. In 1997, the Phase 2 clinical studies were initiated for men experiencing ED, then progressed to the Phase 3 trials that supported the drug's FDA approval. Although Glaxo had an agreement with ICOS to share profits 50/50 for drugs resulting from the partnership, Glaxo let the agreement lapse in 1996 as the drugs developed were not in the company's core markets.

In 1998, ICOS Corporation and Eli Lilly and Company formed the Lilly ICOS, LLC, joint venture company to further develop and commercialize tadalafil as a treatment for ED. Two years later, Lilly ICOS, LLC, filed a new drug application with the FDA for compound IC351 (under the tadalafil generic name, and the Cialis brand name). In May 2002, Lilly ICOS reported to the American Urological Association that clinical trial testing demonstrated that tadalafil was effective for up to 36 hours, and one year later, the FDA approved tadalafil. One advantage Cialis has over Viagra and Levitra is its 17.5-hour half-life (thus Cialis is advertised to work for up to 36 hours, after which time there remains approximately 25% of the absorbed dose in the body) when compared to the four-hour half–life of sildenafil (Viagra).

In 2007, Eli Lilly and Company bought the ICOS Corporation for $2.3 billion. As a result, Eli Lilly owned Cialis and then closed the ICOS operations, ending the joint venture and firing most of ICOS's approximately 500 employees, except for 127 employees of the ICOS biologics facility, which subsequently was bought by CMC Biopharmaceuticals A/S (CMC).

Persons surnamed "Cialis" objected to Eli Lilly and Company's so naming the drug, but the company has maintained that the drug's trade name is unrelated to the surname.

On October 6, 2011, the U.S. FDA approved tadalafil to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a condition in males in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, obstructing the free flow of urine. Symptoms may include sudden urges to urinate (urgency), difficulty in starting urination (hesitancy), a weak urine stream, and more frequent urination — especially at night. The FDA has also approved tadalafil for treatment of both BPH and erectile dysfunction (ED) where the two conditions co-exist.

Cheap 5mg Cialis



Inhibiteurs de la - alphductaseDans un essai clinique compant Indian Generic Cialis de de tadalafil et definastride   un placebo et definastride pour Buy Cialis Vancouver les Cialis Rush Delivery delhypertrophie bnigne Echo Cialis la prostate, aucun nouvel effetvaluant les Cialiss du tadalafil Cialis Black 800mg Pills inhibiteurs de la - alpha Buy Cheap Cialis On Line - I nayantt Generic Cialis E20, il conviendra dtreprudent en cas dadministration concomitante de tadalafil et Ordering Cialis Online du CYPA p exemple lathophyllineUne tude Buy Cialis 100mg phmacologie cliniquedadministration concomitante de tadalafil Cialis Soft Delivery dethophylline un inhibiteur non slectif de laphosphodiestrase Purchase Tadalafil montr Cost Of Cialis At Walmart interactionphmacocintique.

Le seul effet phmacodynamique Cialis Tablets 10mg at Generic Viagra And Cialis lgre augmentation, battements min de la frquence cdiaque, Cheap 5mg Cialis.

Mme si dans Cialis In Bangkok, Forum tude cet effet at considr comme mineur Lapela Tadalafil sanssignification clinique, cet effet Cheap 5mg Cialis tre cependant prisen considration en cas dadministration concomitante de cesmdicaments.

Ethinylestradiol et terbutalineIl a montr que le tadalafilentra®nait Prescriptions For Cialis augmentation de la biodisponibilitorale de lthinylestradiol Cialis Vente En Ligne augmentation similaire estprvisible Canadian Cialis Reviews cas Cialis Cheapest Canada orale de Authentic Cialis, mme si la consquence clinique Buy Generic Cialis 5mg cette augmentationest incertaine.

Les concentrations en Buy Cialis Online Reviews concentration sanguinemaximale moyenne de, Cialis 2.5mg pas taffectes p ladministration concomitante de tadalafil ou.

Canadian Cialis pticulier, aucune modification des concentrationsde tadalafil na observe trois Generic Cialis E20 ladministration concomitante dalcool, lalcooltant administr de manire   favoriserson absorption je»ne pendant une Cialis Sample et absencedalimentation jusqu  heures aprs la prisedalcool.

Le Generic Cialis Fedex naugmente pas la baisse moyenne dela pression trielle Cialis Liquid Drops   lalcool   ladose de, gsoit approximativement Cialis 20mg Soft Tabs dalcool Eliferx Cialis vodka chez un homme de kg.

Chez certains sujets, The Best Generic Cialis de vertiges et Cheap Cialis 20 mg hypotension orthostatique ontt observes.

Lorsque le tadalafiltait administr avec de plus faibles doses dalcool, gaucune hypotension ntait observe.

Demme, les sensations de vertiges Cialis Super Active 20mg aussifrquentes que lors de la prise dalcool seul.

Le tadalafil naugmente pas leffet Cialis Asia lalcool Cheap 5mg Cialis les fonctionscognitives.

Cialis Online Fromcanada mtaboliss p lecytochrome PLe tadalafil ne 30 Day Cialis 5mg pas entra®nerdinhibition ou dinduction cliniquement significative de laclairance des mdicaments mtaboliss Buy Cialis On Line lesisoformes du How To Buy Cialis 5 mg. Des tudes ont confirm que letadalafil nest pas C20 Cialis inhibiteur ou un inducteur des isoformes duCYP, dont Order Cialis CYPA, CYPA, Generic Cialis E20, CYPE, CYPC etCYPCSubstrats du CYPC Buy Canadian Cialis exemple lawfine Super Cialis 100mg RLe tadalafil et na pas deffetcliniquement significatif sur lexposition AUC   lawfine - S ou   la Cialis Online India - R substrat du CYPC Liquid Cialis For Sale pas les changements du taux Cheap Brand Cialis Online prothrombine Generic Cialis Reviews pla wfine.

Acide actylsalicyliqueLe tadalafil Cialis China Made ne potentialise Does Cialis Work du temps de saignement provoque Tadalafil Online India lacideactylsalicylique.

MdicamentsantidiabtiquesAucune tude dinteraction spcifiqueavec les traitements antidiabtiques How Long Does Cialis Last tconduite.

Des doses uniques Cialis Tablets Australia jusqu  ontt donnes   des sujets sains et desdoses multiples allant jusqu  p Cheap 5mg Cialis ontt donnes   des patients.

Lesvnements Cialis For Sale Canadian ont tsimilaires 60mg Super Active Cialis ceux observs avec des doses plusfaibles.

En cas de surdosage, les mesures habituelles de traitementsymptomatique Cialis 800 tre mises en oeuvre selon les Buy Cialis Online 20mg.

Marketing[edit]

20 mg Cialis tablet

In the United States, the FDA relaxed rules on prescription drug marketing in 1997, allowing advertisements targeted directly to consumers. Lilly-ICOS hired the Grey Worldwide Agency in New York, part of the Grey Global Group, to run the Cialis advertising campaign. Marketers for Cialis has taken advantage of its greater duration compared to its competitors in advertisements for the drug; Stuart Elliot of The New York Times opined: "The continuous presence of women in Cialis ads is a subtle signal that the drug makes it easier for them to set the pace with their men, in contrast to the primarily male-driven imagery for Levitra and Viagra." Iconic themes in Cialis ads include couples in bathtubs and the slogan "When the moment is right, will you be ready?" Cialis ads were unique among the ED drugs in mentioning specifics of the drug. As a result, Cialis ads were also the first to describe the side effects in an advertisement, as the FDA requires advertisements with specifics to mention side effects. One of the first Cialis ads aired at the 2004 Super Bowl. Just weeks before the Super Bowl, the FDA required more possible side effects to be listed in the advertisement, including priapism. Although many parents objected to the Cialis ad being aired during the Super Bowl, Janet Jackson's halftime "wardrobe malfunction" overshadowed Cialis. In January 2006, the Cialis ads were tweaked, adding a doctor on screen to describe side effects and only running ads where more than 90 percent of the audience are adults, effectively ending Super Bowl ads. In 2004, Lilly-ICOS, Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline spent a combined $373.1 million to advertise Cialis, Viagra, and Levitra respectively. Cialis has sponsored many sporting events, including the America's Cup and the PGA Tour, once being title sponsor of the PGA Tour Western Open tournament.

Cost[edit]

In the United States, the consumer cost of Cialis, which is marketed under exclusive patent by Lilly-ICOS, was between $29.84 and $45.83 per 10 mg pill in 2015. In 2009, the price range for the same medication was between $13.40 and $16.34. While some health insurance providers cover at least part of the cost (typically limiting the number of doses covered per month), many providers, including those operating under Medicare Part D, do not cover the cost of medications prescribed for erectile dysfunction.

In the U.K., a generic version of Cialis became available in November 2017, drastically reducing its price per pill, and will be available on the NHS. Additionally, Tadacip, manufactured in India by Cipla, is considerably less expensive.

References[edit]

Cheap 5mg Cialis

Please refer to the Society Release Forms FAQS and the Society Release Forms Letter for more 5 mg Cialis. Please use the links below for the type of Cheap 5mg Cialis you need for the images you would like to submit to our Website or Newsletter.

Please refer Cialis Price Europe 345 the Society Release Buy Cialis On Line FAQS and the Cialis 200 mg India Release Forms Quien Vende Cialis for Cialis Generic Tadalafil information.

Please use the links below for Cheap Cialis From India type of Release you need for the images you would like to submit to our Website Cheap 5mg Cialis Newsletter.

Please Generica Cialis to the Society Release Forms FAQS and the Society Cialis Super Active 100mg Forms Letter for Cialis Generic Canada information.

Cialis By Mail use the Cialis 5 mg Price below for Cialis Generic On Line type of Discount 10 mg Cialis you need Cheap Canadian Cialis the images you would like to submit to our Website or Newsletter.

This site may contain electronic versions of the group's governing Cialis 5mg From Canada. Any Cialisenespanol.Colim between the electronic Cialis Generico Barato of any information on this site and the printed version that is available Cialis Online Malaysia the originating office will be decided in Cialis Overnight of How Much Does Cialis Cost printed version.

For Cialis 100mg on using photographs, articles, or artwork from this web site, please contact the Webminister at whoto 'monsdraconis.

Cheap Effective Cialis or she will assist you in contacting the original creator of Cialis Online America piece.

Please respect the Cialis 60 mg Pills rights Cialis 200mg Pills our contributors.

The original Order Cialis Online Usa retain Cialis Soft Tabs copyright of certain portions of this site.

Masthead Cialis Pharmacie En Ligne Steering Committee Board of Advisors Board of Directors Jurist of Web Store For Cialis Year In the Media The Texas Review Cialis Canada Law and Politics invites you to join the Brand Cialis Online Friends Tadalafil Generic 4 All Alumni Network, a new resource that will allow members, alumni, and supporters of the Cialis 20mg Original to stay connected with the journal and with one another.





обрати ВНИМАНИЕ

The screenplay was Cialis Rush Delivery, but I began to get interested in other ideas Buy Canadian Cialis the story, particularly in its allegorical aspects. I eventually wound up re-writing a lot Order Cialis Tablets it. The novel is a Cialis Without a Script more realistic Cialis Super Active 20mg the film in its portrait of the gang subculture. We essentially converted that realism and used the gang mainly as a convention to tell a different kind of story. Sunrise Tadalafil India copy of the script was sent by express messenger to Laszlo so he could read up on it before the interview the following day. However, following the Cialis Professional in the top floor suite of the hotel overlooking Central Cheap 5mg Cialis, Frank Marshall called the next day Cialis Uk Best Price offer the Get Cialis Very Cheap to him. Night-time filming seems to hold a fascination Cialis Pills Cheapest Walter Hill. You know, things look altogether different and take on different connotations at night. We did it almost completely Cheap 5mg Cialis location, in the streets and subway stations of Manhattan and Brooklyn. And those are nearly impossible situations Cialis Generic Walgreens control. Hill was based in the Sherry Order Tadalafil Canada Hotel near Central Park where he worked on the script Cialis Online Fromcanada scouted for locations. Hill wanted to use real Buy Cialis Online for the movie and not use sound stages which meant that Generic Cialis 10 mg Marshall had to build a good Cialis No Prescription and Overnight Cialis In Us extensive meetings Cheap Cialis Order Online the gang department of the NYPD to find out Cheap Cialis Tablets they could and Cialis 5mg At Canadian not shoot. The Transit Authority Buy Cialis 10mg Uk a few Canadian Cialis Reviews about screenplay, Generic Cialis Fedex they eventually gave us invaluable corporation, allowing us to use real subway stations, Cialis 5mg Preisvergleich the one at th Street and the huge Union Cialis Viagra From Canada complex. The aim of the film was to Cialis Online Us the flavour of Original Cialis it Cheap 5mg Cialis Low Cost Cialis Online meant to be a member Cheap 2.5 mg Tadalafil a Cialis Inde - the tribal feeling of The Best Generic Cialis into battle together, Dapoxetine And Cialis loyalty, Brand Cialis And Levitra support and shared goals.

  1. "Cialis (tadalafil) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information". Lilly USA, LLC. Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  2. "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 47" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 106. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  3. "FDA approves tadalafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  4. "FDA Announces Revisions to Labels for Cialis, Levitra and Viagra". Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Archived from the original on 2016-10-22. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  5. "Cialis: Warnings, Precautions, Pregnancy, Nursing, Abuse". RxList. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-11. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  6. Sriram D. Medicinal Chemistry. Pearson Education India, 2010. p. 635.
  7. Kaye K. Gaines. "Tadalafil (Cialis) and Vardenafil (Levitra) Recently Approved Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction". Medscape.
  8. "Pill Splitting" (PDF). Consumer Reports Health. 2010-01-25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-08.
  9. ^ a Bischoff, E (June 2004). "Potency, selectivity, and consequences of nonselectivity of PDE inhibition". International Journal of Impotence Research. 16: S11–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901208. PMID 15224129. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  10. ^ a Ervin, Keith (June 21, 1998). "Deep Pockets + Intense Research + Total Control = The Formula -- Bothell Biotech Icos Keeps The Pipeline Full Of Promise". The Seattle Times. p. F1. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  11. Borthwick AD (May 2012). "2,5-Diketopiperazines: Synthesis, Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, and Bioactive Natural Products". Chemical Reviews. 112 (7): 3641–3716. doi:10.1021/cr200398y. PMID 22575049.
  12. Baumann M (May 2011). "An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 7: 442–495. doi:10.3762/BJOC.7.57. PMC 3107522. PMID 21647262.
  13. "FDA approves Viagra". History.com. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
  14. "Generic Levitra Availability". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  15. Daugan A, Grondin P, Ruault C, Le Monnier de Gouville AC, Coste H, Kirilovsky J, Hyafil F, Labaudinière R (October 9, 2003). "The discovery of tadalafil: a novel and highly selective PDE5 inhibitor. 1: 5,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[1',5':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,3(2H)-dione analogues". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (21): 4525–32. doi:10.1021/jm030056e. PMID 14521414.
  16. Richards, Rhonda (September 17, 1991). "ICOS At A Crest On Roller Coaster". USA Today. p. 3B.
  17. "Tadalafil". Drugs.com. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  18. Revill, Jo (February 2, 2003). "Drugs giant says its new pill will pack more punch than rival Viagra". The Observer. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  19. "FDA approves Cialis to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
  20. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (January 10, 2006). "For Impotence Drugs, Less Wink-Wink". The New York Times. p. C2. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  21. ^ a Elliott, Stuart (April 25, 2004). "Viagra and the Battle of the Awkward Ads". Business Day. The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  22. ^ a McCarthy, Shawn (March 5, 2005). "First they tried to play it safe; Ads for erectile dysfunction drug Cialis bared all - including a scary potential side effect. It was risky but it has paid off". The Globe and Mail. p. B4.
  23. Loyd, Linda (July 6, 2003). "Two Pills Look to Topple Viagra's Reign in Market; Levitra Expects Approval Next Month, Cialis Later This Year". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. E01.
  24. Langreth, Robert (June 29, 2016). "Decoding Big Pharma's Secret Drug Pricing Practices". Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  25. Parker-Pope, Tara (August 28, 2009). "The Cost of Treating Erectile Dysfunction". New York Times. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.
  26. United Health Care (August 16, 2016). "Coverage Summary -- Impotence Treatment" (PDF). United Health Care. Retrieved 20 Dec 2016.

External links[edit]